Amino Acids are organic compounds made in the body which combine to form proteins.
Essential Amino Acids
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Essential Amino Acids are amino acids (the building blocks of proteins including cysteine, lysine and tryptophan) that cannot be made by the body and must be supplied by food. 

Non-Essential Amino Acids are made by the body from the Essential Amino Acids or the regular  breakdown of proteins.

Varieties

Sources of essential amino acids include Milk, Cheese, Eggs, Certain Meats, Vegetables, Nuts, and Grains.

The Non-Essential Amino Acids include: Aspartic Acid, Glutamic Acid, and Glycine.

Nutritional Value

Essential Amino Acid                    mg/g of Protein

 Tryptophan                                                       7      (mood, pain and sleep regulation)

 Threonine                                                         27   (monitoring of body proteins)

 Isoleucine                                                         25  (muscle production & blood formation)

 Leucine                                                             55  (growth hormone prod. & tissue prod.) 

 Lysine                                                               51  (bone development & hormone production)

 Methionine+Cystine                                       25   (digestion of fats & removal of plaque)

 Phenylalanine+Tyrosine                               47    (brain processes & mood)

 Valine                                                                32   (muscle production)

 Histidine                                                           18   (physical & mental growth)

Source: The National Institute of Health