First Margarine
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In 1869, Emperor Louis Napoleon III of France seeking to feed his armed forces (and the lower classes) offered a prize for a satisfactory butter substitute. French Chemist Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès answered the call and invented margarine while experimenting with processed beef tallow and skimmed milk. He called his discovery Oleo Margarine and was awarded the prize and a patent for Margarine in 1869 but was unable to create a business with it. He sold the patent to the Dutch company Jurgens, which was successful and became the nucleus around which the International food giant Unilever was formed.The word Margarine comes from the Greek for shiny pearls or pearl oysters (because of the shiny fat deposits) as coined by Michel Eugène Chevreul who found margaric acid in 1813.