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The Purpose of Applied Heat is both for Taste and Health.
Production The production of beef is carried about by four primary types of operations: Cow & Calf Operations: What we typically think of as a ranch. Cow & Calf Operations are where breeding is developed. There are eight major Beef Cattle Breeds, and cows give 14-16 offspring...
Picking the Right Cut of Tender Beef Improves the Ultimate Dining Experience.
Caramelization in cooking is the pyrolysis (decomposition due to lack of oxygen) of sugar used to create a nutty, caramel flavor and brown color. It is a Non-Enzymatic Browning process that releases water (through steam) and breaks down the sugar in the food being Caramelized. The...
The competitive cash market for cattle has been gradually shrinking since the 1990s, but the pace of decline has quickened in the last few years. In 1999, the cash market accounted for nearly 70% of cattle sales to the top meatpackers. By 2007, it had fallen to just above 50%, according to...
In the Middle East, Clarified Butter (produced in their style) is called “Samna,” and in India & South Asia (produced in their style) it is called “Ghee.” The biggest difference between Classic Clarified butter and Samna or Ghee is that in Ghee, the butter is...
Common Eastern and Middle-Eastern Salad Dressings include among others: Extra Virgin Olive Oil Ginger Dressing Sesame Oil Soy Sauce Fermented Sauces Hummus Russian Dressing (Russia straddles Asia) Tahini Passion Fruit Dressing Wafu...
Common Western Salad Dressings Blue Cheese Dressing Caesar Salad Dressing Extra Virgin Olive Oil French Dressing Italian Dressing Honey Dijon Louis Dressing Ranch Dressing Russian Dressing Thousand Island Dressing Vinaigrettes Nutritional Value...
Varieties In addition to Beurre D’Isigny and Beurre Poitou-Charentes there are several other European Butters with Protected Geographical Indications: Beurre Rose, from Luxembourg ...
Varieties Adaptaur (from Australia): A Bos taurus breed, bred for the tropics from Herefords and Shorthorns. Afrikaner Cattle (from South Africa): Afrikaners are a South African breed descended from Sanga type of cattle herded by the Khoikhoi (Hottentots) before the Dutch established the...
When Finish Cooking Foods Their Internal Temperature Must Rise Above Certain Temperatures to be Considered "Cooked."
In 1869, Emperor Louis Napoleon III of France seeking to feed his armed forces (and the lower classes) offered a prize for a satisfactory butter substitute. French Chemist Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès answered the call and invented margarine while experimenting with processed beef...
Like wine making, vinegar making was probably discovered by accident. A jug of fresh fruit juice, such as grape juice might have been left uncovered and unattended. Wild airborne yeasts clinging to the grape skins or settling out of the air spontaneously began a Primary Alcoholic...
Butter from Normandy has a distinctive flavor that is reputed to derive from the unique nature of the cream from which it is made, and from the bacteria indigenous to the dairies there. Just as certain lactobacillus injected into milk yields yogurt, mildly fermented cream visited by wild...
High Heat is considered to be 450°to 650°F or 232°C to 343°C. High Heat is used for Sauté, Grilling and Pan Roasting.
For hundreds of years, the name Fondue or Fonduë, meant a similar type of dish as our modern Fondue, but one which was, if possible to believe, richer because it included Eggs as well as Cheese and wine. In 1735, Vincent La Chappelle wrote in French of Fonduë de Fromage aux...
The history of Pilaf pre-dates written history. To understand the major leaps forward in Pilaf technology and distribution, we must refer to the Etymology (the word history), human history and the anthropological / archeological record. Scientists estimate that humans were actually...
According to Lindley's Treasury of Botany, the genus name Rheum, the technical name for Rhubarb, is said to be Latin in origin and derived from “Rha,” the archaic name of the Volga River in Russia. The ancient Romans imported Rhubarb from trading centers on the Volga River...
Before the rise of man, there were two naturally occurring forbearers of Rice with a very similar genome. One, Oryza barthii was native to Africa. The other wild grass “Nivara” was native to Asia. Scientists postulate that their similarities and parallel evolutionary paths may...
Modern French sauces begin with Francois La Varenne in the 17th Century. The French concept of "Mother Sauces," which we will delve into in Exercise 2, is an 18th century invention of Antonin Carême, the founder of French “Grande Cuisine.” Carême...
The Chuck Primal Cut can be broken down along English lines as a Square-Cut Chuck or along Continental lines as a California Style Chuck, resulting in different retail cuts of meat for the arm and shank of the Chuck. Luckily, the two styles treat the shoulder blade area...
Production Modern Cast iron cookware shouldn’t be pure iron. Other materials, such as carbon and phosphorus, are mixed with the iron to produce proper hardness and durability. Iron with impurities included in it can heat unevenly and crack. Evidence of poor metal mixes include...
As fruit ripens, it reaches its full size, changes color and its flesh becomes tender. Its acid content increases but so do its sugars, making it, illogically, taste sweeter even with a higher acid content. The fruit is considered ripe when it reaches a perfect balance of acid & sugar....
In 1999, the 10 largest beef-packing firms accounted for more than 90 percent of all Steer and Heifer slaughter in the U.S. The top four processors of hogs processed more than half of the country's pork. In 2011, according to the Western Organization of Resources Councils three...
Humans taste with their tongues and soft palates (roof of the mouth) which both have taste buds (also called papillae), and our epiglottis, along with our sense of smell. Have you ever noticed that it is harder to taste food when you have a cold? For the taste component alone, when...
Production Both slaughtering and the animal inspection process are controlled by the Federal Government through the USDA. As of this writing, there are 5 major companies that process most of the meat in the United States: Swift a subsidiary of JBS, The world’s largest meat...
Food Labels are on almost all processed foods and provide a wealth of information about the contents of the packages. The information can help the consumer select foods low in Calories, Fat, Cholesterol, and Sodium, and high in Dietary Fiber, Nutrients, and Complex Carbohydrates. The...
Yogurt is made by fermenting the Lactose in Milk with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus bacteria or Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus bacteria that in turn produce the Lactic Acid that gives Yogurt its sourness and distinctive texture. Other lactobacilli and bifido...
Animal milk is thought to have first been used for human consumption around 5,000 BC when it is presumed animals (like cattle) were domesticated, for their meat. Over time, our ancestors did the math. Dairy products, and manure (and eventually labor) provided by the animals were a superior...
Italians classify their Rice grains by their sizes and their widths. Superfino is the term used for the widest size. Semifino is the term used for medium width and Fino is the narrowest Grain. Nutritional Value USDA
When most of us think of Italian cuisine, we think of Tomato Sauce & Pasta or perhaps a tomato based pizza sauce but Tomatoes are a new world vegetable that did not reach Italian shores until the 1500’s. Even then it was not an immediate culinary smash. Tomatoes were...
In Italy, tomato sauces can range from the most simple crushed tomatoes and garlic Sautéed in oil to more complicated tomato reductions with additions of meat, vegetables and spices. In the United States, true to our melting pot roots, we have adopted many of the fine...
Kosher certification involves examining ingredients, the method of preparation and inspecting the facility on a regular, periodic basis. These inspections ensure all ingredients are kosher and they are prepared following the Jewish law. Kosher meat must also be slaughtered in accordance...
Varieties Some Milk Types are: Whole Milk: Whole Milk is the milk as it came from the cow and contains about 3.5% butter fat. Homogenized Milk: Homogenized Milk is the same as whole milk, except that during preparation, the fat particles are broken up so finely that they remain...
Varieties Milk comes from a number of animal sources: Cow’s Milk-Milk produced by a cow. It has approximately 3.5% milk fat, 8.5% milk solids and is 88% water and used by humans as a beverage, for making dairy products and for cooking and baking. It is also known as Milk, Whole Milk...
The term “Level of Doneness” refers to how a food item is Finish Cooked and is actually a non-scientific measure of the coagulation of Protein when exposed to heat. You may know the term better by its descriptions or categories of “Doneness” such as Bleu, Extra...
Low Heat is 225°F to 249° F and it is Used for the Slowest & Gentlest Cooking.
You Can Find Great, Unique Cheese from Mail-Order Cheese Mongers.
Production Glass is a non-crystalline material manufactured by melting a combination of raw materials including sand, soda ash, limestone, feldspar and borax. The glass used in cookware is normally melted in a large refractory furnace or tank at temperatures exceeding 2000° F. A small...
Production Thermoset plastics are compression molded by using a predetermined weight of material which is either formed or compressed into a slug or pill and is placed in the mold when the mold is in an open condition. The mold then closes, and heat and pressure are applied to this plug which...
Production The prehistoric people of Asia preserved meat and fish by packing them in Salt. The liquid byproducts that leeched from meat preserved in this way were commonly used as liquid seasonings for other foods. In the sixth century, as Buddhism became more widely practiced, new Vegetarian...
Production Stainless steel bakeware is usually fabricated from sheets of solid stainless steel. Top-of-range stainless steel cookware and utensils are generally made by combining stainless steel with other metals, usually aluminum, copper or carbon steel. The other metals improve the...
There are Many Varieties of these Medium Sized Tomatoes.
Culinary Uses Chef’s actually use both Medium/High and Medium as heat designations for employed heat. We will use Medium/High Heat when we mean Medium/High Heat. Medium Heat is 325°F to 374° For 162°C to 190°C. Fats suitable for Medium Heat are: Extra Virgin...
Medium/High Heat which is 375° to 449°F or 190°C to 232°C.
Chef’s actually use both Medium/Low and Low as heat designations for employed heat. Culinary Uses We will use Low when we mean Low Heat. We will use Medium/Low Heat when we mean Medium/Low Heat which is 250°F to 324°F or 121°C to 162°C. Fats suitable for...
Microwave Radiation: Sound frequencies penetrate the surface of an object and cause the water molecules to become agitated, thereby giving off heat that spreads through Conduction to the rest of the food. Nutritional Value USDA
Paris has Many of the Finest Cheese Shops in the World.
Production In 1863, French chemist and biologist Louis Pasteur invented pasteurization, a method of killing harmful bacteria in beverage and food products with time & temperature. To pasteurize milk, heat it to 145°F (62°C) and hold it for thirty minutes, then chill rapidly to 40 or...
A protected geographical indication is like a brand name for the place of origin of a product. The most famous example is Champagne, which must come from the Champagne region of France, or be called sparkling wine. The protected geographical indication is designed to protect and certify...
In the U.S., animals must be inspected before slaughter. The U.S. government uses veterinarians to look for exterior defects and diseases that can be harmful or fatal to man or animals. The slaughtered animal must be 100% healthy or it is rejected. Sanitation and wholesomeness are overseen...
The words Roasting and Baking are artifacts of history, developed as culinary vocabulary when man learned the different uses of a cooking fire. Imagine early chefs cooking over an open fire. They originally had two primary and distinctive methods to use to cook the food. They could...
Secondary Alcoholic Fermentation refers to the second stage in the typically two stages of fermenting vinegar. In the first stage, Primary Fermentation, sugar is converted to alcohol by yeasts. In turn the alcohol is converted in the second stage by acetobaters into acetic acid. In theory,...
When discussing Sheep, Cattle or Swine, the skeletal anatomy, that we follow to derive meat cuts, is similar with sides, quarters and primal cuts around the upper half shoulder, ribs, loin & rump sections and the lower half chest, foreleg, plate/flank & rear leg. The most tender...
What are density and specific gravity? Consider getting a jar and adding a handful of gravel, ½ cup of cooking oil, and topping it off with tap water. Imagine putting on the lid and shaking vigorously and then letting it sit for a minute. What do you think would happen? If you shook...
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A T-bone steak, a plate of pasta, a slice of pizza; while these may all be food favorites of many, would they be quite so pleasing if they weren’t served warm and steaming? Wouldn’t you be a bit unhappy if they came out hard and tough? Dessert items such as pudding and custard...
Water Boils at Different Temperatures Depending on Air Pressure and Altitude.
In 1930 Ruth Graves Wakefield, a dietician and food lecturer, was running a tourist lodge called the Toll House Inn in Massachusetts with her husband where her duties included cooking meals for the inn’s guests. Intending to make chocolate drop cookies, she discovered she had no...
In the history of food, whoever controlled access to flavorings such as spices had a powerful business advantage. With little Seasoning available, a European diet in the Middle Ages was bland and uninteresting. Europeans were nearly mad for spices and they would do (and pay) anything...
Though its origins are a bit unclear, Corn is a true American native. Corn most likely developed from a large grass called teosinte (Zea Mexicana) which still grows wild in Central America. Corn was the result of radical evolutionary changes from its parent plant and is quite different...
Before the Ancient Greeks, most educated people agreed that there were three tastes: sweet, of course, sour and salty. But a Greek philosopher, Democritus, thought about it long and hard several thousand years ago, and added the taste we call bitter today, making it four. His conception...
“Granula” was invented in 1863, long before the Hippies of the 60’s rediscovered it. But the path to granola started even earlier with Hardtack (or hard tack) the Great-Grandfather, if you will, of Granola. Before modern preservation methods, dried baked flour products...
Olives have been eaten and used by man for thousands and thousands of years. Since prehistoric times, people have been grinding and draining Olives to collect Olive Oil for use as fuel, in cooking and in beauty treatments. Depending on the type, Olives are composed of between 15 and 30%...
Raw fresh fish was caught and filleted. It was then salted and wrapped in Rice and kept in storage for months, even up to a year. The Rice would become sour and ferment and help preserve the fish by breaking down the Protein into its Amino Acid building blocks. Later, when needed, the...
The Macadamia, which looks similar to a Filbert Nut, originated in the rainforests of Queensland and New South Wales in eastern Australia. The aborigines enjoyed the Macadamia Nut long before the arrival of Westerners who only “discovered” Macadamias in 1828 when Alan...
Yogurt (or at least fermented Milk) may pre-date man. There is evidence in the genome of L. delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus that this Yogurt making bacteria may have originated as a plant dweller, that is, a bacteria living on the surface of plant leaves. Natural animal milk may have come...
This Smart Kitchen Resource Page is dedicated to just listing out some of the Hot Peppers that are commonly found at retail. In the list of Hot Peppers, you will find Peppers with heat, wild heat and crazy heat as measured in Scoville Units. The Sweet Peppers are listed in the List of...
This Smart Kitchen Resource Page is dedicated to just listing out some of the Sweet Peppers that are commonly found at retail. In the list of Sweet Peppers, you will find Peppers with 0 heat and those with mild heat. The hot peppers are listed in the List of Hot Peppers. If you want to know...
Meat was a rare treat for the average Medieval diner and often only available to the nobility. As such, very little Chopping or Mincing of that delicacy was done. Sausage Making, a major method of preserving and extending meat’s shelf life at the time, did not even require grinding...
There are a Multitude of Small Fruit Tomato Varieties.
A Quick Summary of Some of the More Familiar of the 67 Types of Butter.
Varieties Some types of Creams are: Cream: Cream is the fat of whole milk that slowly rises to the top of the standing fresh milk. Historically, it was skimmed off to be used for richer purposes, like butter. The longer it stands, the richer it gets. Cream comes in a number of preparations...
Varieties Barley: Grown for malting and feeding livestock on land too cold or poor for wheat. Buckwheat: A Pseudo-Cereal used in Eurasia. Major Western uses include Pancakes & Groats from the minimally processed grain itself. Corn: see Maize below. Fonio: Several Varieties of...
There are Many Different Varieties of these Larger Types of Tomatoes.
The word "Kosher" refers to a Jewish law meaning proper or correct. Kosher foods are those processed in accordance with the Jewish law. For a food product to be kosher, it must be processed under Kosher Certification. There are many Kosher Certifying...
In the past it was no simple feat to determine where your meat was born. But since October 2008 (fully implemented in March 2009) mandatory Country of Origin Labeling (COOL) on ground meat or muscle cuts of meat (beef, lamb, veal, pork & chicken) at retail grocers has been required....
There are Many Differences Between White Chicken Meat and Dark Chicken Meat.
Time-Weight Ratio Charts for cooking are helpful, useful and productive. What they aren’t, however, are detailed and accurate measures of actual cooking times to achieve real world Levels of Doneness. The charts may look like instructions, and they are often published by very...