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Aluminum is an Excellent Heat Conductor but Can also React Negatively with Certain Foods.
Simmering means to cook products in water that is just below the boiling point, between the temperatures of 185° F - 205° F (85° C - 96° C). In this process, virtually some agitation is caused by heat. Nutritional Value USDA
The debate about the origin of Apricots (Prunus armeniaca), that are also known as “Armenian Plums” in Latin, is an interesting one. Because of the Latin name and classification, Mediterranean scholars assert that the Apricot, a cousin of the Plum, originated in Armenia. Their...
Artichokes are the Flowering Buds of the artichoke plant. We eat two main types in the U.S.: Globe Artichokes & Baby Artichokes.
One of the Two Major Rice Types.
Asparagus is a Fern-Like Delicate Vegetable.
Avocado Oil has a vibrant green color and nutty taste. Production The average avocado contains 10-20% oil. Avocado Oil is pressed by crushing the meat of the avocado (without the mildly toxic pit). Water is added to the pulp and the oil floats to the surface and can be separated. Hot...
Rich and Luscious, Avocados Varieties Range from Long & Slender to Short & Round.
There are a number of types of Baby Carrots. The first type is what Smart Kitchen would call “true” Baby Carrots. These are actually full grown specimens of fast-maturing breeds of carrots that have been bred to have a smaller, tender, taproot. True Baby Carrots are cultivated as...
Baking Soda, sodium bicardonate; is used in cooking and baking. Baking Soda in the kitchen, is primarily used to help dough rise. Baking Soda starts to work when moisture and an acidic ingredient are all added together. A chemical reaction then occurs, which creates carbon dioxide bubbles...
Balsamic Vinegar is Aged Wine. The More Complex the Balsamic Vinegar Going into Your Dishes, the More Complex the Flavors Coming Out of Them.
The true Bay Leaf, we find in kitchens, should be the fragrant leaf of the evergreen Bay Laurel tree. In Greek and Roman times, Bay leaves were worn as a symbol of honor. As legend has it, putting a Bay Leaf under your pillow on Valentine’s Day would cause the sleeper to dream of...
Technically, Beans are the Seeds of Legumes Carried in a 2 Seamed Pod.
Production The production of beef is carried about by four primary types of operations: Cow & Calf Operations: What we typically think of as a ranch. Cow & Calf Operations are where breeding is developed. There are eight major Beef Cattle Breeds, and cows give 14-16 offspring...
Picking the Right Cut of Tender Beef Improves the Ultimate Dining Experience.
Black Garlic is a fermented food product and not a variety of garlic. Black Garlic is used in Asian Cuisine, but is becoming very popular in the west! Season Black Garlic is a food product and as such does not have a season. Availability Black Garlic is available in most Specialty...
Bok Choy (Brassica rapa variety chinensis) but also known as Bok Choi, Pak Choy, Pak Choi, Pei Tsai, Chinese Chard, Chinese Mustard, Celery Mustard, Spoon Cabbage and/or Chongee, is a Chinese cabbage with thick white leaf stalks and vibrant green leaves. Bok Choy, which is an Asian...
Button Mushrooms (also known as Common Mushrooms, White Button Mushrooms, White Mushrooms, Table Mushrooms, Cultivated Mushrooms, Agaric Cultivé, Champignon Mushrooms and Champignon de Paris) is the most common mushroom consumed in the United States. The average American eats around 2.2...
When people say "Cabbage," they generally mean the Green Cabbage or Red Cabbage that is a large, smooth-leafed, single-headed plant, but they can also be referring to Savoy Cabbage, a head cabbage with crinkly leaves. Or it could be the varieties of Chinese cabbages, such as Napa...
Capers have a mustard-like flavor, that comes from the oil it produces. Availability Capers are available all year long. Cultivation Capers are an herb. A Caper is the flower from the Caper Bush. The Caper Bush grows all year round in warm climates. Production The flowers are...
Caramelization in cooking is the pyrolysis (decomposition due to lack of oxygen) of sugar used to create a nutty, caramel flavor and brown color. It is a Non-Enzymatic Browning process that releases water (through steam) and breaks down the sugar in the food being Caramelized. The...
Carrots are one of the Major Root Vegetables Used in the Kitchen.
The competitive cash market for cattle has been gradually shrinking since the 1990s, but the pace of decline has quickened in the last few years. In 1999, the cash market accounted for nearly 70% of cattle sales to the top meatpackers. By 2007, it had fallen to just above 50%, according to...
Varieties Adaptaur (from Australia): A Bos taurus breed, bred for the tropics from Herefords and Shorthorns. Afrikaner Cattle (from South Africa): Afrikaners are a South African breed descended from Sanga type of cattle herded by the Khoikhoi (Hottentots) before the Dutch established the...
It is believed that all modern domestic cattle evolved from a single ancestor, the Aurochs, which is now extinct. Modern beef cattle can be classified as one of two biological types, Bos indicus or Bos taurus. Our modern method of raising cattle on corn is relatively new. In the past it was...
The Chanterelle Mushroom has wavy, fleshy caps with ruffled false gills that flare upward along the stem. A Chanterelle Mushroom flavor is nutty, emitting savory aromatics. These flavor notes are enhanced, when cooked. Entirely edible, the Chanterelle stem is chewier and more fibrous than the...
In the Middle East, Clarified Butter (produced in their style) is called “Samna,” and in India & South Asia (produced in their style) it is called “Ghee.” The biggest difference between Classic Clarified butter and Samna or Ghee is that in Ghee, the butter is...
Collard Greens, (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), also known more simply as just “Collards,” or sometimes even just “Greens,” are an underappreciated Leafy Green vegetable. Collard Greens are a member of the Brassica Family that includes Broccoli, Cauliflower,...
Common Eastern and Middle-Eastern Salad Dressings include among others: Extra Virgin Olive Oil Ginger Dressing Sesame Oil Soy Sauce Fermented Sauces Hummus Russian Dressing (Russia straddles Asia) Tahini Passion Fruit Dressing Wafu...
Common Western Salad Dressings Blue Cheese Dressing Caesar Salad Dressing Extra Virgin Olive Oil French Dressing Italian Dressing Honey Dijon Louis Dressing Ranch Dressing Russian Dressing Thousand Island Dressing Vinaigrettes Nutritional Value...
Varieties Below, Smart Kitchen has listed different types of Dairy Milk with some information for each type. Follow each link, if you would like to learn more for each milk type. Whole Milk: Whole Milk is the milk as it came from the cow and contains about 3.5% butter fat. Homogenized...
There are Many Differences Between White Chicken Meat and Dark Chicken Meat.
Varieties In addition to Beurre D’Isigny and Beurre Poitou-Charentes there are several other European Butters with Protected Geographical Indications: Beurre Rose, from Luxembourg ...
Fennel is an Important Ingredient for Many International Cuisines.
When Finish Cooking Foods Their Internal Temperature Must Rise Above Certain Temperatures to be Considered "Cooked."
In 1869, Emperor Louis Napoleon III of France seeking to feed his armed forces (and the lower classes) offered a prize for a satisfactory butter substitute. French Chemist Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès answered the call and invented margarine while experimenting with processed beef...
Like wine making, vinegar making was probably discovered by accident. A jug of fresh fruit juice, such as grape juice might have been left uncovered and unattended. Wild airborne yeasts clinging to the grape skins or settling out of the air spontaneously began a Primary Alcoholic...
Food Labels are on almost all processed foods and provide a wealth of information about the contents of the packages. The information can help the consumer select foods low in Calories, Fat, Cholesterol, and Sodium, and high in Dietary Fiber, Nutrients, and Complex Carbohydrates. The...
Free Range is becoming a very common! Learn what it means to ensure You don't get tricked by the food industry.
Butter from Normandy has a distinctive flavor that is reputed to derive from the unique nature of the cream from which it is made, and from the bacteria indigenous to the dairies there. Just as certain lactobacillus injected into milk yields yogurt, mildly fermented cream visited by wild...
"There are many miracles in the world to be celebrated and, for me, Garlic is the most deserving." -- Felice Leonardo (1924 - 1998)
Fine Herbes or "Fin Herbs" as it is pronounced in French are Some of the Most Traditional and Delicate Seasonings.
High Heat is considered to be 450°to 650°F or 232°C to 343°C. High Heat is used for Sauté, Grilling and Pan Roasting.
For hundreds of years, the name Fondue or Fonduë, meant a similar type of dish as our modern Fondue, but one which was, if possible to believe, richer because it included Eggs as well as Cheese and wine. In 1735, Vincent La Chappelle wrote in French of Fonduë de Fromage aux...
The history of Pilaf pre-dates written history. To understand the major leaps forward in Pilaf technology and distribution, we must refer to the Etymology (the word history), human history and the anthropological / archeological record. Scientists estimate that humans were actually...
According to Lindley's Treasury of Botany, the genus name Rheum, the technical name for Rhubarb, is said to be Latin in origin and derived from “Rha,” the archaic name of the Volga River in Russia. The ancient Romans imported Rhubarb from trading centers on the Volga River...
Before the rise of man, there were two naturally occurring forbearers of Rice with a very similar genome. One, Oryza barthii was native to Africa. The other wild grass “Nivara” was native to Asia. Scientists postulate that their similarities and parallel evolutionary paths may...
Modern French sauces begin with Francois La Varenne in the 17th Century. The French concept of "Mother Sauces," which we will delve into in Exercise 2, is an 18th century invention of Antonin Carême, the founder of French “Grande Cuisine.” Carême...
This Smart Kitchen Resource Page is dedicated to just listing out some of the Hot Peppers that are commonly found at retail. In the list of Hot Peppers, you will find Peppers with heat, wild heat and crazy heat as measured in Scoville Units. The Sweet Peppers are listed in the List of...
The Chuck Primal Cut can be broken down along English lines as a Square-Cut Chuck or along Continental lines as a California Style Chuck, resulting in different retail cuts of meat for the arm and shank of the Chuck. Luckily, the two styles treat the shoulder blade area...
Production Modern Cast iron cookware shouldn’t be pure iron. Other materials, such as carbon and phosphorus, are mixed with the iron to produce proper hardness and durability. Iron with impurities included in it can heat unevenly and crack. Evidence of poor metal mixes include...
Yogurt is made by fermenting the Lactose in Milk with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus bacteria or Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus bacteria that in turn produce the Lactic Acid that gives Yogurt its sourness and distinctive texture. Other lactobacilli and bifido...
Animal milk is thought to have first been used for human consumption around 5,000 BC when it is presumed animals (like cattle) were domesticated, for their meat. Over time, our ancestors did the math. Dairy products, and manure (and eventually labor) provided by the animals were a superior...
Hybrid Tomato plants are very common because commercial growers and home gardeners like that they tend to be hardier, better producing plants. Varieties Hybrid Tomatoes include: Beefmaster Tomato Better Boy Tomato Black Zebra Tomato Burpee Big Girl Tomato Bush...
Italians classify their Rice grains by their sizes and their widths. Superfino is the term used for the widest size. Semifino is the term used for medium width and Fino is the narrowest Grain. Nutritional Value USDA
When most of us think of Italian cuisine, we think of Tomato Sauce & Pasta or perhaps a tomato based pizza sauce but Tomatoes are a new world vegetable that did not reach Italian shores until the 1500’s. Even then it was not an immediate culinary smash. Tomatoes were...
In Italy, tomato sauces can range from the most simple crushed tomatoes and garlic Sautéed in oil to more complicated tomato reductions with additions of meat, vegetables and spices. In the United States, true to our melting pot roots, we have adopted many of the fine...
A Member of the Cabbage Family, Kale is The Powerhouse Vegetable.
The word "Kosher" refers to a Jewish law meaning proper or correct. Kosher foods are those processed in accordance with the Jewish law. For a food product to be kosher, it must be processed under Kosher Certification. There are many Kosher Certifying...
Kosher certification involves examining ingredients, the method of preparation and inspecting the facility on a regular, periodic basis. These inspections ensure all ingredients are kosher and they are prepared following the Jewish law. Kosher meat must also be slaughtered in accordance...
Legumes are a Class of Vegetables.
A Tart Citrus Fruit that Livens Up Most Any Dish.
Lentil, botanically-known as “Lens culinaris esculenta,” are legumes (or beans) that have been a source of sustenance for our ancestors since prehistoric times. The Lentil is classified as an edible pulse or “grain legume,” an annual leguminous crop yielding from one to...
First of all “Lettuce” is not a specific type of Green or type of Vegetable. Instead, Lettuce is more of a “catch-all” name, like Grains, which is technically applicable to a number of related plants with edible leaves in the genus Lactuca. In practice, any other types of...
The term “Level of Doneness” refers to how a food item is finish cooked and is actually a non-scientific measure of the coagulation of protein, when exposed to heat. You may know the term better by its descriptions or categories of “Doneness” such as Bleu, Extra...
Limes provide some vitamin C, limes contain less of this vitamin than any other citrus.
Low Heat is 225°F to 249° F and it is Used for the Slowest & Gentlest Cooking.
You Can Find Great, Unique Cheese from Mail-Order Cheese Mongers.
Production Glass is a non-crystalline material manufactured by melting a combination of raw materials including sand, soda ash, limestone, feldspar and borax. The glass used in cookware is normally melted in a large refractory furnace or tank at temperatures exceeding 2000° F. A small...
Production Thermoset plastics are compression molded by using a predetermined weight of material which is either formed or compressed into a slug or pill and is placed in the mold when the mold is in an open condition. The mold then closes, and heat and pressure are applied to this plug which...
Production The prehistoric people of Asia preserved meat and fish by packing them in Salt. The liquid byproducts that leeched from meat preserved in this way were commonly used as liquid seasonings for other foods. In the sixth century, as Buddhism became more widely practiced, new Vegetarian...
Production Stainless steel bakeware is usually fabricated from sheets of solid stainless steel. Top-of-range stainless steel cookware and utensils are generally made by combining stainless steel with other metals, usually aluminum, copper or carbon steel. The other metals improve the...
There are Many Varieties of these Medium Sized Tomatoes.
The Meat Inspection process begins with veterinarians looking for exterior defects and diseases that can be harmful or fatal to man or animals. The animal must be 100% healthy or the meat will be rejected. Sanitation and wholesomeness are overseen by the Food Safety & Inspection Service...
In 1999, the 10 largest beef-packing firms accounted for more than 90 percent of all Steer and Heifer slaughter in the U.S. The top four processors of hogs processed more than half of the country's pork. In 2011, according to the Western Organization of Resources Councils three...
Production Both slaughtering and the animal inspection process are controlled by the Federal Government through the USDA. As of this writing, there are 5 major companies that process most of the meat in the United States: Swift a subsidiary of JBS, The world’s largest meat...
In aggregate, approximately 28 million land and sea animals are consumed every year in the U.S. The meat and poultry industry is the largest segment of U.S. agriculture. Total meat and poultry production in 2010 reached more than 92.1 billion pounds, up 1.2 billion pounds from...
Culinary Uses Chef’s actually use both Medium/High and Medium as heat designations for employed heat. We will use Medium/High Heat when we mean Medium/High Heat. Medium Heat is 325°F to 374° For 162°C to 190°C. Fats suitable for Medium Heat are: Extra Virgin...
Medium/High Heat which is 375° to 449°F or 190°C to 232°C.
Chef’s actually use both Medium Low Heat and Low as heat designations, for employed heat. Culinary Uses We will use Low when we mean Low Heat. We will use Medium Low Heat when we mean Medium Low Heat which is 250°F to 324°F or 121°C to 162°C. Fats suitable...
Microwave Radiation: Sound frequencies penetrate the surface of an object and cause the water molecules to become agitated, thereby giving off heat that spreads through Conduction to the rest of the food. Nutritional Value USDA
Most Planetary Mixers come with various Mixer Attachments. Varieties Common Attachments include: Dough Hook – A spiral-shaped attachment used for mixing and kneading yeast-based dough. Paddle or Flat Beater – A paddle-shaped attachment that is used for mixing...
Morel Mushrooms are one of the most highly-prized edible fungi in the world, even though, to a botanist, they are not technically “mushrooms” at all. Morel Mushrooms and truffles are, if you will, cousins to the more familiar mushroom. Brown-colored, Morel Mushrooms belong to...
A Mushroom; is fungi that is large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Mushrooms grow above and below ground and should have a desirable taste, aroma and texture, without being poisonous. Though we think of them as vegetables, Mushrooms ("Champignons" in French and "Fungi" in...
In the kitchen, the definition of a “Nut” (and we don’t mean the chefs or line cooks) is much looser than the biological definition. Production About 72% of U.S. Tree Nut production is exported. Varieties In biology, a Nut is sort of a combination fruit/seed where...
In cooking, an Oil is Fats (generally derived from plants) that are liquid at room temperature. Varieties Some of the most edible used oils used in the kitchen include: Olive Oil, Palm Oil, Soybean Oil, Canola Oil, Corn Oil, Sunflower Oil, Safflower Oil, Peanut Oil, Grape Seed Oil, Sesame...
There are Many Types of Oils Used in the Kitchen. Select the Appropriate one for your Application.
The Olive is one of the earliest Cooking Ingredients and used in the Kitchen in many Forms.
Olive Oil is the "Grand Dame" of Cooking Oils and can be Processed a number of ways for various Uses.
The Onion's Flavor, in one form or another "Blends into almost everything in the meal except the dessert." - Julia Child
The most common Papaya we see in America are the fruits of the Carica Papaya plant. The Papaya is a member of the caricaceae family. All Papayas are in the order Brassicales, which includes capers, cabbages and mustard greens. This may explain the bitterness of the edible but peppery...
Paris has Many of the Finest Cheese Shops in the World.
Production In 1863, French chemist and biologist Louis Pasteur invented pasteurization, a method of killing harmful bacteria in beverage and food products with time & temperature. To pasteurize milk, heat it to 145°F (62°C) and hold it for thirty minutes, then chill rapidly to 40 or...
The Chinese believe the Peach, (Prunus Persica), to be the most vital of fruit trees and guard peach blossoms as sacred in their culture. The Chinese also revere the Peach as a symbol of longevity. In Asia, the wood of the Peach tree was even used to fight off evil spirits. In fact, most...
Any type of Pepper is a member of the Nightshade family (Solanaceae), which also includes Eggplant, Potatoes, Tomatoes, and tobacco. All Peppers are part of the genus Capsicum and are commonly called “Capsicums,” “Chilies” (also spelled “Chiles,”...
The Peppercorn, is one of the most valuable commodities in the world! To date, Peppercorns account for one quarter of the Spice Trade. Peppercorn originated in the Indian tropical forest regions. Today, Indonesia, Malaysia and Brazil are major producers. Availability Peppercorns...
The Pineapple is Sometimes Called the "King of Fruits."
The Pomegranate, (Punica granatum is the botanical name), is an edible berry of the Pomegranate shrub. Pomegranates range from red to pink in color, have a rounded hexagonal shape (crowned at the base by a prominent calyx), a thick skin and are about the size of a large Lemon or small...
Potatoes are a Versatile, Starchy Tuber that Adapts well to Most Flavors.
A protected geographical indication is like a brand name for the place of origin of a product. The most famous example is Champagne, which must come from the Champagne region of France, or be called sparkling wine. The protected geographical indication is designed to protect and certify...
Rhubarb, also known as the (“Pie Plant,” Chinese Rhubarb, Garden Rhubarb, Himalayan Rhubarb, Indian Rhubarb, Medicinal Rhubarb, Tai Huang, Turkey Rhubarb, etc), is the name given to a number of different plants in the genus Rheum in the Polygonaceae plant family. Common examples...
Rice is a staple food for over half the world's population! Rice is also one of humanities earliest foraged grain. Collectively, we have a 12,000 to 14,000 year relationship with rice. The history of rice and its dispersal around the globe is fascinating. Rice, is a member of the...
Rice Pilaf is a versatile dish that has expanded around the world following the distribution of Rice through trade and conquest. The History of Rice Pilaf is interesting as is the application of native culinary and cultural talent which adapted the adopted dish to the local tastes, preferences...
As fruit ripens, it reaches its full size, changes color and its flesh becomes tender. Its acid content increases but so do its sugars, making it, illogically, taste sweeter even with a higher acid content. The fruit is considered ripe when it reaches a perfect balance of acid & sugar....
Salt is a base flavor.
Secondary Alcoholic Fermentation refers to the second stage in the typically two stages of fermenting vinegar. In the first stage, Primary Fermentation, sugar is converted to alcohol by yeasts. In turn the alcohol is converted in the second stage by acetobaters into acetic acid. In theory,...
Shallots, “The Onions of Ascalon,” were once considered a separate species within the onion family (Shallots’ scientific name is Allium Cepa var aggregatum or Allium ascalonicum). Today they are just considered as a form of onion by botanists, but in the kitchen they are still...
Simple Syrup, also known as “Bar Syrup” is made by dissolving sugar in water and then cooling the solution. Generally, the ratio of sugar to water when making a Simple Syrup can range from 1:1 to 2:1. Varieties Sweeteners used to make the Simple Syrup can include: White Sugar,...
When discussing Sheep, Cattle or Swine, the skeletal anatomy, that we follow to derive meat cuts, is similar with sides, quarters and primal cuts around the upper half shoulder, ribs, loin & rump sections and the lower half chest, foreleg, plate/flank & rear leg. The most tender...
What are density and specific gravity? Consider getting a jar and adding a handful of gravel, ½ cup of cooking oil, and topping it off with tap water. Imagine putting on the lid and shaking vigorously and then letting it sit for a minute. What do you think would happen? If you shook...
In cuinary arts, Sugar is the generic name for a class of sweet food stuffs and ingredients that include actual Sugars such as Sucrose, Dextrose, Galactose, Maltose, Fructose, Glucose, and Lactose, but also other sweeteners such as Honey, Molasses, Agave Syrup and Artificial...
Sweet Potatoes, Member of the Morning Glory Family are Neither Yams or Potatoes.
Humans taste with their tongues and soft palate (roof of the mouth). Both have taste buds (also called papillae), and our epiglottis, along with our sense of smell. For the taste component alone, when food enters your mouth, it comes into immediate contact with your tongue which is divided...
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A T-bone steak, a plate of pasta, a slice of pizza; while these may all be food favorites of many, would they be quite so pleasing if they weren’t served warm and steaming? Wouldn’t you be a bit unhappy if they came out hard and tough? Dessert items such as pudding and custard...
Water Boils at Different Temperatures Depending on Air Pressure and Altitude.
There are Many Different Varieties of these Larger Types of Tomatoes.
The words Roasting and Baking are artifacts of history, developed as culinary vocabulary when man learned the different uses of a cooking fire. Imagine early chefs cooking over an open fire. They originally had two primary and distinctive methods to use to cook the food. They could...
In 1930 Ruth Graves Wakefield, a dietician and food lecturer, was running a tourist lodge called the Toll House Inn in Massachusetts with her husband where her duties included cooking meals for the inn’s guests. Intending to make chocolate drop cookies, she discovered she had no...
In the history of food, whoever controlled access to flavorings such as spices had a powerful business advantage. With little Seasoning available, a European diet in the Middle Ages was bland and uninteresting. Europeans were nearly mad for spices and they would do (and pay) anything...
Though its origins are a bit unclear, Corn is a true American native. Corn most likely developed from a large grass called teosinte (Zea Mexicana) which still grows wild in Central America. Corn was the result of radical evolutionary changes from its parent plant and is quite different...
Before the Ancient Greeks, most educated people agreed that there were three tastes: sweet, of course, sour and salty. But a Greek philosopher, Democritus, thought about it long and hard several thousand years ago, and added the taste we call bitter today, making it four. His conception...
Granola was invented in 1863, long before the Hippies of the 60’s rediscovered it. But the history of granola started even earlier with Hardtack (or hard tack) the Great-Grandfather, if you will, of Granola. Before modern preservation methods, dried baked flour products were one of the...
Olives have been eaten and used by man for thousands and thousands of years. Since prehistoric times, people have been grinding and draining Olives to collect Olive Oil for use as fuel, in cooking and in beauty treatments. Depending on the type, Olives are composed of between 15 and 30%...
Raw fresh fish was caught and filleted. It was then salted and wrapped in Rice and kept in storage for months, even up to a year. The Rice would become sour and ferment and help preserve the fish by breaking down the Protein into its Amino Acid building blocks. Later, when needed,...
The Macadamia, which looks similar to a Filbert Nut, originated in the rainforests of Queensland and New South Wales in eastern Australia. The aborigines enjoyed the Macadamia Nut long before the arrival of Westerners who only “discovered” Macadamias in 1828 when Alan...
Yogurt (or at least fermented Milk) may pre-date man. There is evidence in the genome of L. delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus that this Yogurt making bacteria may have originated as a plant dweller, that is, a bacteria living on the surface of plant leaves. Natural animal milk may have come...
This Smart Kitchen Resource Page is dedicated to just listing out some of the Sweet Peppers that are commonly found at retail. In the list of Sweet Peppers, you will find Peppers with 0 heat and those with mild heat. The hot peppers are listed in the List of Hot Peppers. If you want to know...
Meat was a rare treat for the average Medieval diner and often only available to the nobility. As such, very little Chopping or Mincing of that delicacy was done. Sausage Making, a major method of preserving and extending meat’s shelf life at the time, did not even require grinding...
Most chefs cooking today, including those at SmartKitchen.com, prefer Stainless Steel Knives. Stainless steel is usually high carbon steel with the addition of chromium. The resultant benefits of stainless steel are that it does not discolor or oxidize foods and it holds an edge longer,...
Almost All You Need to Know about Tomatoes.
Truffles (“Tartufo” in Italian), are the fruiting portion of any number of ectomycorrhizal fungi, meaning fungi (mushrooms). Truffles have no root system but exist symbiotically with trees, (typically oaks, but also chestnut, elms, willows, hazel, poplar, and beech) where their...
A Quick Summary of Some of the More Familiar of the 67 Types of Butter.
Varieties Some types of Creams are: Cream: Cream is the fat of whole milk that slowly rises to the top of the standing fresh milk. Historically, it was skimmed off to be used for richer purposes, like butter. The longer it stands, the richer it gets. Cream comes in a number of preparations...
Varieties Barley: Grown for malting and feeding livestock on land too cold or poor for wheat. Buckwheat: A Pseudo-Cereal used in Eurasia. Major Western uses include Pancakes & Groats from the minimally processed grain itself. Corn: see Maize below. Fonio: Several Varieties of...
Varieties Milk comes from a number of animal sources. Below are the types of milk, provided by different animals. Cow Milk- Milk produced by a female cow. It has approximately 3.5% milk fat, 8.5% milk solids and is 88% water and used by humans as a beverage, for making dairy products and for...
For ease of use and clarity, the North American Meat Processors Association (NAMP) codified all of the cuts to be found on a Poultry (Chicken, Turkey, Duck, Geese, etc.) into a simple list. The NAMP list of cuts, applies equally to any of the domesticated poultry types. Learn more about...
There are a Multitude of Small Tomato Varieties.
Vanilla, offers a unique sweet flavor for baking and cooking! Until the 1800s, Vanilla was only grown on the fringes of the Mexican tropical forests. It was jealously guarded by the Mexicans, since it was a great source of foreign income. In modern times most of the production of Vanilla is...
A Smaller Building Block of the Butcher's Trade.
Culinary Uses Don't just assume that any beef with the word "roast" in its name will make a good roast beef. Some of those “roasts” are intended for pot roast and are not good for a Dry Heat Method like Roasting. Many of them need longer slower cooking with a Moist...
According to history, Wheat is one of the 1st grains ever cultivated! Not to mention, Wheat is the most widely used food product, flour, in the world. Making Wheat, Very Important! Availability Wheat is available all year long. Production Roughly half of the U.S. Wheat crop is...
In the past it was no simple feat to determine where your meat was born. But since October 2008 (fully implemented in March 2009) mandatory Country of Origin Labeling (COOL) on ground meat or muscle cuts of meat (beef, lamb, veal, pork & chicken) at retail grocers has been required....
Time-Weight Ratio Charts for cooking are helpful, useful and productive. What they aren’t, however, are detailed and accurate measures of actual cooking times to achieve real world Levels of Doneness. The charts may look like instructions, and they are often published by very...