Caramelization
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Caramelization in cooking is the pyrolysis (decomposition due to lack of oxygen) of sugar used to create a nutty, caramel flavor and brown color.  It is a Non-Enzymatic Browning process that releases water (through steam) and breaks down the sugar in the food being Caramelized.  The Caramelization of foods happens at different temperatures depending on the type of sugar involved as indicated below. 

Varieties

Caramelization Temperatures

Sugar

Temperature

Sucrose

160°C, 320°F

Fructose

110°C, 230°F

Galactose

160°C, 320°F

Glucose

160°C, 320°F

Maltose

180°C, 356°F