Porcelain Garlic
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Porcelain Garlic is a sub-group of Hard Necked Garlic, which is one of the major classifications within the Garlic family. Porcelain Garlic, like Rocambole Garlic, to which it is often compared, produces a hard stalk (Garlic Scape) when its shoots push out of the ground. Because of the hard stalk, Porcelain Garlic is not “braidable” like Soft Neck Garlic.

Porcelain Garlic typically contains about four to six large Garlic Cloves that are encased in a very smooth, satiny, white “paper” or sheath. Because the cloves are so large, Porcelain Garlic is often mistaken for Elephant Garlic.

Garlic (Allium sativum), also known as “The Stinking Rose,” is, ironically, a member of the Lily family, in the Allium group, which makes it a cousin to Onions, Leeks, Chives and Shallots. Garlic has been cultivated for thousands of years.  No one knows Garlic’s exact origin, but it is believed that Wild Garlic, its ancestor, was first grown in south-central Asia by semi-nomadic tribes more than ten thousand years ago.  If you want to learn more about Garlic, generally, visit Smart Kitchen’s General Garlic Information Resource.

Season

Porcelain Garlic matures in the middle of the Garlic pack. They are neither the earliest nor the latest types to be harvested. Depending on the climate and the particular variety of Porcelain Garlic, the bulbs will likely be harvested in the summer. Porcelain Garlic does store well though, once cured, and is not really thought of as a seasonal Aromatic.

Availability

Because it can be cured and stored, fresh Porcelain Garlic can be available all year long. Because of its interesting flavor, Porcelain Garlic is becoming more popular with gourmands and you may start seeing it more frequently at Specialty Grocers.

Cultivation

Garlic “heads” or bulbs grow underground and are made up of sections called cloves which are encased in a paper-like membrane and which are basically a unique, miniature, self-contained plant. This means that each Garlic clove is essentially a seed. Porcelain Garlic cloves are larger but they furnish fewer plants per pound of seed stock than other Garlic types. One rule of thumb is that 1 LB (.5 Kg) of Porcelain Garlic Bulbs will yield roughly 40 Porcelain Garlic plants.

If you can find Porcelain Garlic at retail, we strongly advise against popping a few of the Garlic cloves leftover from your meal into the garden. The primary reason is that Porcelain Garlic may be the wrong type for your area. Porcelain Garlic, like most Hardneck Garlic, grows better in cold climates.

The secondary reason is that the store bought Garlic may have been treated with various agents that reduce fertility in an effort to improve its looks or shelf life (see Production). If you plan to grow your own Porcelain Garlic, consult with a local nursery (or mail order seed house) about what types grow best in your region.

If you are excited to sample some of your Garlic fresh from the garden, go ahead and use some of your harvest right away (see Culinary Uses). For the bulk of your crop, you may want to cure it before storing it for later use (see Production).

Planting Porcelain Garlic has its obvious benefits but it is also a good companion plant for your garden because it can act as an insect repellent. Conventional agribusiness farmers are also starting to use Garlic as a pesticide against aphids, thrips and even difficult pests such as bollworms and certain nematodes. Environmental friendly Garlic sprays are usually combined with an oil to make them stick better to leaves.

Set aside your most beautiful heads of Porcelain Garlic and those with the biggest cloves to use as your seed stock for the following season.

Production

Garlic is ready for harvest when the tops become partly dry and start bending towards the ground. Fresh Garlic was traditionally harvested by hand because Garlic bulbs are sensitive to impact, and can break up easily. Squishing, bruising, or otherwise damaging, the Garlic bulb during harvest, curing or storage can allow rot to set in and leave the product too blemished for the grocer’s produce section.

Once the Garlic is harvested, depending on how it will be prepared for market, it can be cured, broken into cloves and peeled, or dehydrated. If the commercial Garlic bulbs are to be broken into cloves and peeled instead of being stored for sale as Fresh Garlic, they are usually transported to another workspace where compressed air is used to separate the cloves and peel them. Peeled Garlic is one of the biggest sellers in the category.

If they are to be cured, commercial Garlic is usually left in the fields in its natural state (windrowed) for a day or two before being put into bags or bins for final curing in a curing shed. Curing in a shed protects the Garlic from hot sun and bright light which can lead to sun scald and greening. Essentially, curing Garlic involves dehydrating it, the old fashioned way, in a shady, airy, dry place.

To clean up the garlic for storage, you would trim off the roots and leaves so they are only ¼ inch or ½ inch long. More dirt will dislodge and a couple extra layers of bulb wrappers may flake off, giving you a nice and neatly packaged bulb. Remember not to remove too many wrappers in case you expose the cloves.

Varieties

There are hundreds of types of Porcelain Garlics with new ones being bred all of the time. Some Porcelain Garlics include: Music Garlic (softer with a sweeter, blander Garlic flavor), Portugal 1 Garlic, Portugal 2 Garlic,  German Extra Hardy Garlic (strong), Dan’s Russian Garlic, Fish Lake 3 Garlic (strong), Georgian Crystal Garlic (mild), Georgian Fire Garlic, Georgian White Garlic, Polish Hardneck Garlic, Great Northern Garlic (strong),  Italian Porcelain Garlic, Anthony’s Italian Garlic, Leningrad Garlic (strong), Mammoth Garlic, Melody Garlic, Mennonite Garlic, Newfoundland Tall Garlic, Yugoslavian Garlic (strong), Northern Quebec Garlic (strong), Romanian Red Garlic (strong), Armenian Garlic,  Rosewood Garlic, Susan Delafield Garlic, Sweet German Garlic, Stull Porcelain Garlic, Vostani Porcelain Garlic, Chiloe Garlic, Floha Garlic, Yampolski Garlic, etc.

The thing to remember is that each type will have a slightly different flavor and you may want to experiment until you find a variety that is just right for you. Since we all have different body chemistry, it’s not surprising that we all prefer different types of Garlic, even different types of Porcelain Garlic.

Purchasing

When buying fresh Porcelain Garlic, look for bulbs with firm, plump cloves.  They should have plenty of papery sheath surrounding them.

If the cloves appear soft, crumbly, spongy or shriveled we would pass. We would also avoid any that are brownish, have black powder (mildew), appear dried out or have green shoots sprouting out of them.

If you are not sure what you are seeing in front of you in the produce aisle, ask your green grocer. Because it is so large, many people often confuse Porcelain Garlic with Elephant Garlic, which is actually a Leek and not a Garlic at all.

“Country of Origin” is another factor to consider. If you don’t recall any of the news stories about tainted baby formula, adulterated pet food, etc. let’s just say that China has a different point of view than ours when it comes to food safety. Half of our domestic Garlic is imported from China, typically Soft Neck Garlics, but knowing that your Porcelain Garlic isn’t imported is probably a good idea. Even “organic” Garlic is often from China, where the People’s Republic’s standards (not American), are the ones that count towards organic certification.

Storage

Once properly cured, Porcelain Garlic can store for several months. Porcelain Garlics are in the second tier of storage life/shelf life. With their tight paper wrappers, they can last for up to 8 months from the time they are harvested.

Store fresh Porcelain Garlic bulbs unwrapped at room temperature in a cool, dry, well-ventilated place like your pantry. Sunlight, except for strong direct sunlight which can scorch Garlic, is not much of a consideration. You should store your Garlic away from other foods. The Garlic’s aroma can cloud the taste of its stored neighbors.

We like to hold our Porcelain Garlic in mesh bags, but you can use anything that breaths like a paper bag or even a terra cotta pot. If you want to get technical, the ideal storage conditions will be between 55° F and 65° F with good air circulation and only around 60% humidity. Be mindful of the humidity. Too much moisture can cause fungus and mold. Too little moisture can cause the Garlic to dry out.

The refrigerator is not the best choice for storing Fresh Porcelain Garlic bulbs because the moisture in the refrigerator can cause the Garlic bulb to sprout.  The pungent Garlic can also infuse other food items with its scent. We purposefully use the word “bulb” throughout because keeping the bulb together helps keep the Garlic cloves fresher longer.

Properly stored, whole Garlic bulbs can be kept up to 8 weeks after they are purchased, which is often months after they are harvested. They will begin to dry out toward the end of that time. Once broken down from a bulb, the individual Garlic cloves will keep refrigerated for up to a week or 10 days.

There are a few good ways to freeze Garlic. One is to Chop the Garlic, wrap it tightly in a plastic freezer bag or in plastic wrap, and freeze. Use it by Grating it into / onto your dish or by breaking off the amount required. 

Culinary Uses

Though we tend to think of Porcelain Garlic as a Spice, Seasoning or Condiment, it is technically a Vegetable, one that is used, principally, to augment and enhance other foods. Because Garlic pairs very favorably with so many other ingredients (Tomato & Olive Oil for example), Garlic is one of the most widely used Vegetables in the kitchen.

Flavoring Vegetables like Garlic are called Aromatics (so are Herbs, Spices, Wines, VinegarsZests and anything that boosts a dish’s flavor). Ironically, Garlic Bulbs don’t have much scent sitting on the shelf. Garlic only starts to smell once the cell walls are ruptured and the Garlic’s sulfur compounds are released by being bruised, cut or crushed.

Releasing the flavor compounds is the reason why we almost always Peel Garlic for use and then break it down to release the flavor. Crushing the Garlic or Pressing also expands the surface area and helps release the Garlic’s healthful nutrients.

Each Porcelain Garlic Bulb is made up of a number of Garlic Cloves (typically 4-8), which are the basic units of Garlic use. Each Garlic Clove is almost always peeled for use, though Roasting Garlic is one familiar exception. Porcelain Garlic’s flavor can range from strong to mild, but is considered to have, much like Rocambole Garlic, a more complex and complicated Garlic flavor.

Porcelain Garlic is used both Raw and cooked. Raw Garlic has a very pungent, hot, bitter/spicy taste that can pack a sulfuric, allium punch. Even if you love Garlic, it may still be a lot in its natural state.

The traditional method of managing the bite is to use appropriate cooking techniques to cook the Garlic. Cooking heat mellows the clove’s sulfurous compounds and makes the Garlic taste much sweeter.  The longer the Garlic cooks the milder the flavor will be.

Secondary methods to manage the bite include clove size and clove preparation. Larger cloves are typically milder than smaller cloves.  Choosing larger cloves for your dish will yield less heat when it is served. Different Varieties of Garlic also have differing levels of heat.

If you want as much assertive Garlic flavor as possible, release the Garlic’s Volatile Oils before use by crushing, bruising, Chopping, Mincing, Puréeing, etc. the cloves. This will cause them to have a sharper, more aggressive flavor than either neat slices or whole cloves.

On Smart Kitchen’s Home Plate Porcelain Garlic is: Raw, Tough, Thin, Dry, & Lean. We consider Garlic “Raw,” because it is safe to eat raw. It is “Tough,” because it has density and texture to it. It is “Thin,” because a Garlic Clove is usually under an inch and a half tall (3.8 cm). We consider it “Dry,” because Garlic is about 60% water which is decent in nature but considered “dry” in the kitchen. Finally, Garlic is considered “Lean,” because it is only 0.15% Fat. In Smart Kitchen’s Home Plate™ shorthand, Garlic would be (R, T2, T3, D, L).

Dry Heat Cooking Methods, usually with Fat Added, are preferred when cooking Garlic because the Dry Heat allows the Garlic to Caramelize and for the Maillard Reaction to begin. Garlic cooked with a Dry Heat Method such as Roasting Garlic works as a standalone dish, or turns a good ingredient into a great one, adding a smooth, rich, nutty, allium taste to other items such as Sauces, Soups, Stews, Salad Dressings, etc. Overcooking, always a bad plan, is worse with Garlic because too much heat destroys the delicate compounds that give it its nutritional properties. Cooking it lightly is the best advice. Roasting Garlic, Baking it or Stir Frying it will protect the nutrients.

Moist Heat Methods don’t showcase Garlic the same way which is why chefs don’t spend a lot of time regularly steaming, poaching or boiling Garlic. If you do plan to Stew the Porcelain Garlic, you can add it near the end of the regular cook time to protect its healthful qualities.

Fresh Garlic’s unique flavor is one of the main reasons why it is widely used in so many different cuisines, but is especially associated with Italian Cuisine, French Cuisine, Spanish Cuisine, Mediterranean Cuisine, Caribbean Cuisine, Indian Cuisine, Asian Cuisine, Mexican Cuisine and South American Cuisine.  Its uses in cooking are so varied as to be nearly impossible to list here, but some recipes you might be familiar with that use Garlic are Aioli, Tzatziki, Pesto Sauce, Roasted Garlic Mashed Potatoes, Hummus, Skordalia, Tomato Sauce, Stir Fry’s, Pickled Garlic (another of the uses where it stands alone), etc.

Garlic is also used liberally to flavor and augment Meats like Beef, Pork, and Chicken, Sausages, Soups, Stews, Sauces, Salad Dressings, Stuffing, Legumes, Rice, Vegetables, and even Desserts.

Cloves of fresh Garlic may be the best option according to chefs everywhere, but it is not the only option. Garlic comes jarred in many convenient forms, including Peeled, Chopped, Minced, etc. The obvious benefit is convenience. The less obvious drawback is the deterioration in flavor experienced by many discerning palates.

The Garlic Bulb isn’t the only part of the plant that is edible. The Garlic Flower is edible, as is the stalk, also known as the Garlic Scape. Even the Green Garlic (the leaves) is edible. 

Smart Kitchen has a number of exercises and recipes that use fresh Garlic including: Peeling GarlicMincing GarlicPureeing GarlicRoasting GarlicRoasted Garlic Mashed PotatoesGarlic RiceRoast Chicken with Rosemary, Shallots and Garlic, Fettunta, Braised Round of Beef with Vegetables and Garlic Greens.

If you are not exactly a Garlic fan, but want to use a hint of Garlic Flavor, use Elephant Garlic. It is much milder than standard Garlic.

*When you cut, bruise, or crush a Garlic Clove, alliin (an odorless, sulfur-containing amino acid derivative) reacts with Alliinase (an enzyme) to form Allicin and other compounds. The Allicin breaks down into diallyl disulfide, which is the primary component of Garlic’s odor.

Portion Size

Allow 1-2 t of Porcelain Garlic per person.

Pairings

BasilBay LeafCaraway Seeds, Cayenne, ChivesCorianderCuminFennel SeedsOreganoPaprikaPepperRosemary,SaffronSageSaltSugarTarragonThyme, Beets, BroccoliBell PeppersCabbage, Chile Peppers, CilantroEggplantFennelGingerLeeksMushroomsOnionsParsleyShallotsSpinachTomatoesZucchiniAlmondsBeans, Lentils, BaconBeef,ChickenEggs, Fish, Lamb, Pork, Shellfish, CheeseCreamLimesLemons, Bread, MustardSoy SauceVinegars, Wine, StocksSaucesSoups

Substitutes

If you are not exactly a Garlic fan, but want to find a hint of Garlic Flavor, use Elephant Garlic. It is much milder than standard Garlic.

Nutrition

Garlic is an excellent source of vitamin B6, and a good source of selenium, manganese, and vitamin C. Minerals include calcium, phosphorous, iron, copper and potassium. Just 149 calories contains a surprising 6.4 grams of protein.

Many of the healthful nutrients in Garlic are protected behind cellulose and cell walls. Crushing the Garlic or Pressing it helps release the nutrients and phyto-chemicals by bursting the cell walls and also by expanding the overall surface area of the Garlic. Exposing the nutrients isn’t the end of the story. To gain the healthful benefits that Garlic has to offer, you will also have to safeguard the nutrients to make sure they are not destroyed. Overcooking Garlic is the leading way that these compounds are destroyed. Cooking Garlic lightly is the best advice. Roasting Garlic, Baking it or Stir Frying it will protect the nutrients. Stewing it, but just for the last few minutes of cooking, will work too. 

Generally, Garlic, in amounts found in food, is considered extremely safe. We should note though that you can technically overdo it (especially with extracts, oils, and pills / capsules). High doses can make you sick (potentially fatally) and children are more susceptible according to the American Herbal Products Association Botanical Safety Handbook. That being said, we do not know of any actual fatalities, child or adult, associated with consuming Garlic.

In fact, Garlic has long been known for its medicinal value. One of its nicknames is “The Poor Man’s Treacle, or cure-all. Garlic was described as a medicine in Sanskrit texts 5000 years ago. The Egyptians used it both as medicine and a food and regarded it so highly they swore by it. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all reported using Garlic to treat various conditions, including parasites, low energy, respiratory disorders, and digestive disorders.  Medieval doctors used Garlic as a disinfectant (and a charm against bad spirits).

Traditional Chinese medicine has used garlic since at least A.D. 510, and is still using it for amoebic and bacterial dysentery, tuberculosis, scalp ringworm and vaginal trichomoniasis.  Other folk medicine cultures have traditionally used garlic for treating colds and flu, fever, coughs, headache, hemorrhoids asthma, arterioscelrosis, low blood pressure, both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, cancer and as an aphrodisiac (amongst other things).

Garlic’s reputation in Western medicine was established in 1858 when Louis Pasteur confirmed its antibacterial properties. As recently as 1917, Garlic was in use in battlefield hospitals as an antiseptic in World War I.

The reason for Garlic’s potency is that when crushed or finely chopped, Garlic yields allicin, a short-lived sulfur compound that gives Garlic its flavor and aroma but which is also a powerful antibiotic and anti-fungal compound whose effect is similar to that of penicillin. Ajoene (plus its cousin dihiins) is another, stronger antibacterial and antifungal agent that is contained in Garlic. Ajoene is more stable than Allicin and is even more effective when the Garlic is macerated in OilAjoene has been shown to be very useful against candida yeast, as an antithrombic (essentially a natural blood thinner) and as an anticancer agent.

In the United States, Garlic is being studied for use in fighting Heart Disease, Cancer, for its anti-bacterial properties and its overall immunity boosting properties.

Heart Health

With regard to the heart and circulation, researchers have thus far identified two important ways in which Garlic is helpful. First it contains many sulfur compounds, including diallyl disulfide (DADS) and Ajoene which seem to help smooth blood flow by preventing platelets from sticking together and clotting.

In a study at Brown University, researchers gave 45 men with high cholesterol Aged Garlic Extract (a dose roughly equivalent to 5-6 cloves of fresh Garlic). When they examined the men’s blood, they saw that the rate at which platelets clumped and stuck together had dropped anywhere from 10% to 58%. Preventing Overall Garlic’s most profound benefits are in the area of preventing platelets from clotting (aggregating).

And in another study done at Harbor UCLA Medical Center researchers gave half of the participants Aged Garlic Extract and half of them a placebo, before measuring the calcification in their arteries over the course of a year. At the end of the study, the aged garlic extract group had calcification levels that were significantly lower (10%) than those of the placebo group.

Garlic is also good for the heart because it lowers cholesterol levels and blood fats (triglycerides) in the bloodstream. A review of 13 years’ worth of medical studies investigating the link between Garlic and heart disease showed that 44 percent of them demonstrated a link between Garlic and a decrease in total cholesterol.

In addition Garlic has some mild blood-pressure-lowering properties and it can lower homocysteine (a protein that causes plaque buildup in the arteries). A study performed at UCLA showed that aged Garlic extract can reduce the buildup of plaque in the body by 66%. Garlic also appears to increase the body’s antioxidant status, thus lowering the overall risk of heart disease.

Cancer

There is increasing evidence that Garlic can help improve cancer outcomes in several ways: by preventing cell changes that lead to cancer, by stopping tumors from growing, or by killing the harmful cells outright.

Garlic contains a compound called s-allylcysteine which appears to stop the metabolic action that causes a healthy cell to become cancerous says John Milner PhD chief of the Nutrition Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, MD. Diallyl disulfide (DADS) also appears to play a role in halting the growth by interfering with the cancerous cell’s ability to divide and multiply. Another substance in Garlic is diallyl trisulfide (called DATS) which is 10 times more powerful than DADS as a killer of lung cancer cells. Its effectiveness is comparable to that of 5-fluorouracil (a widely used chemotherapy agent) according to Dr. Milner. The Ajoene, mentioned above, is also reputed to be an anticancer agent.

For example, specific population studies have shown that people who eat more Garlic have fewer stomach and colon cancers than those who eat little Garlic. In Southern Italy, where the cuisine is rich in Garlic, they have proportionally fewer cases of stomach and colon cancer than they do in Northern Italy, where the diet includes little if any Garlic. Another study done at the Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center looked at populations in China, and found that regions with higher Garlic consumption had lower rates of stomach cancer. A third study of 41,837 mid-western women found that those who ate Garlic at least once a week had a 35% lower risk of colon cancer than women who never ate garlic.

In addition to stomach and colon cancer outcomes, Garlic appears to have some benefits with regards to skin cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer and other forms. Some experts, citing anecdotal evidence, opine that eating three cloves of Garlic a day could lower cancer risk by up to 20% and eating 6 cloves a day might reduce your risks by as much as 30%. There is even evidence that Garlic can help prevent nitrites (found in cured meats) from converting to nitrosamines (harmful compounds thought to trigger cancerous changes in human cells).

Remember these are only opinions based on reading studies and anecdotal evidence. No one is suggesting that Garlic replace traditional cancer treatments.

Anti Bacterial, Anti-Fungal, Anti-Yeast

Another area where Garlic is promising is in the fight against pathogens. Modern scientific study has built upon Pasteur’s work and confirmed that Garlic has antibacterial, antifungal and antimicrobial properties. Laboratory tests (both in test tubes and in animals) have demonstrated that fresh garlic has antimicrobial activities (including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiprotozoal, and antiparasitic).  Particular activity against B. subtilis, E. coli, P. mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus faecalis, Salmonella enteritidis, and Vibrio cholerae have been noted.  Bacteria shown to be susceptible to garlic in the test tube include species from Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Proteus, Salmonella, Providencia, Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Hafnia, Aeromonas, Vibrio and Bacillus genera.

In a study at Boston City Hospital, Garlic successfully killed 14 different strains of bacteria (even a few anti-biotic resistant types) swabbed from the noses and throats of children with ear infections. Another study done at England’s School of Clinical Dentistry showed that Garlic (extract) was effective in killing oral bacteria. Swimmers’ Ear (otomycosis) caused by a fungus (aspergillus) was treated with Garlic as effectively as with the available drugs during a study done in New Mexico.

The New Mexico study give scientific basis to the ear ache remedy favored by many of those “old wives,” who use Garlic (or Garlic Oil) to cure their kids. The traditional formula is to crush the garlic and macerate it gently in oil. The concoction is then placed in a porous cloth (like a Cheese Cloth or similar) and inserted gently into the ear in such a way that it is easily extracted again.

The Ajoene (plus its cousin dihiins) in Garlic is a strong antibacterial and antifungal agent that has even been shown to be very useful against candida yeast.

The World Health Organization has reported that Garlic has been used to treat parasites such as roundworm, hookworm and pinworm in various regions including: East Asia, India, Italy, North America, Peru, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia and the West Indies. In fact, the United States Department of Agriculture lists Garlic in its Medicinal Plant Database as a viricide.

 Immune System

Other promising areas where researchers are focusing include boosting the immune system, reducing blood sugar levels, relieving asthma symptoms, maybe even slowing some of the cellular breakdown associated with aging.

The only benefit of Garlic that we are skeptical about is the famous one from the horror genre where Garlic is said to ward off vampires. If your bad breath is strong enough you may have a chance with Dracula, but as far as we can tell there is nothing otherworldly going on with Garlic.

Garlic remedies are sold over-the-counter in Germany and Japan. If you are considering Garlic as a remedy, or even as a supplement, we would go with the smellier products. Many people believe that “it must smell to do well,” meaning that if you can’t smell the active phyto-chemical in Garlic they must be inert and ineffective. The smell-to-do-well philosophy argues against using “odorless” Garlic supplements. We have not seen much research on the benefits of odorless garlic supplements and understand that most of the scientific studies mentioned used Aged Garlic Extract. We are going with the smell (and bad breath) until we see better data on the odorless options.

By the way, Garlic causes bad breath (and odiferous sweat) because the body metabolizes the sulfur compounds in Garlic into Allyl Methyl Sulfide (AMS) which is indigestible and passes into the blood stream. The body rids itself of this blood borne AMS through the lungs via respiration and the sweat glands via perspiration. Working through a good dose of AMS can take a long time which is why garlic breath and garlic sweats can linger. 

Eating fresh Parsley won’t, despite all of the press and commercials, “neutralize” garlic breath but mask it instead.

Gluten Free

Yes

Low Fat

Yes

Low Calorie

Yes