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Simmering means to cook products in liquid/water that is just below the boiling point. The Actual Temperature for Simmering is between 185° F - 205° F (85° C - 96° C). In this process, virtually some agitation is caused by heat. Nutritional Value USDA
Production The production of beef is carried about by four primary types of operations: Cow & Calf Operations: What we typically think of as a ranch. Cow & Calf Operations are where breeding is developed. There are eight major Beef Cattle Breeds, and cows give 14-16...
Varieties Adaptaur (from Australia): A Bos taurus breed, bred for the tropics from Herefords and Shorthorns. Afrikaner Cattle (from South Africa): Afrikaners are a South African breed descended from Sanga type of cattle herded by the Khoikhoi (Hottentots) before the Dutch established the...
It is believed that all modern domestic cattle evolved from a single ancestor, the Aurochs, which is now extinct. Modern beef cattle can be classified as one of two biological types, Bos indicus or Bos taurus. Our modern method of raising cattle on corn is relatively new. In the past it was...
In the Middle East, Clarified Butter (produced in their style) is called “Samna,” and in India & South Asia (produced in their style) it is called “Ghee.” The biggest difference between Classic Clarified butter and Samna or Ghee is that in Ghee, the butter is...
There are Many Differences Between White Chicken Meat and Dark Chicken Meat.
Varieties In addition to Beurre D’Isigny and Beurre Poitou-Charentes there are several other European Butters with Protected Geographical Indications: Beurre Rose, from Luxembourg ...
In 1869, Emperor Louis Napoleon III of France seeking to feed his armed forces (and the lower classes) offered a prize for a satisfactory butter substitute. French Chemist Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès answered the call and invented margarine while experimenting with processed...
Like wine making, vinegar making was probably discovered by accident. A jug of fresh fruit juice, such as grape juice might have been left uncovered and unattended. Wild airborne yeasts clinging to the grape skins or settling out of the air spontaneously began a Primary Alcoholic...
Food Labels are on almost all processed foods and provide a wealth of information about the contents of the packages. The information can help the consumer select foods low in Calories, Fat, Cholesterol, and Sodium, and high in Dietary Fiber, Nutrients, and Complex Carbohydrates. The...
Free Range is becoming a very common! Learn what it means to ensure You don't get tricked by the food industry.
Butter from Normandy has a distinctive flavor that is reputed to derive from the unique nature of the cream from which it is made, and from the bacteria indigenous to the dairies there. Just as certain lactobacillus injected into milk yields yogurt, mildly fermented cream visited by wild...
Fine Herbes or "Fin Herbs" as it is pronounced in French are Some of the Most Traditional and Delicate Seasonings.
For hundreds of years, the name Fondue or Fonduë, meant a similar type of dish as our modern Fondue, but one which was, if possible to believe, richer because it included Eggs as well as Cheese and wine. In 1735, Vincent La Chappelle wrote in French of Fonduë de Fromage aux...
The history of Pilaf pre-dates written history. To understand the major leaps forward in Pilaf technology and distribution, we must refer to the Etymology (the word history), human history and the anthropological / archeological record. Scientists estimate that humans were actually...
According to Lindley's Treasury of Botany, the genus name Rheum, the technical name for Rhubarb, is said to be Latin in origin and derived from “Rha,” the archaic name of the Volga River in Russia. The ancient Romans imported Rhubarb from trading centers on the Volga...
Before the rise of man, there were two naturally occurring forbearers of Rice with a very similar genome. One, Oryza barthii was native to Africa. The other wild grass “Nivara” was native to Asia. Scientists postulate that their similarities and parallel evolutionary paths...
Modern French sauces begin with Francois La Varenne in the 17th Century. The French concept of "Mother Sauces," which we will delve into in Exercise 2, is an 18th century invention of Antonin Carême, the founder of French “Grande Cuisine.” Carême...
The Chuck Primal Cut can be broken down along English lines as a Square-Cut Chuck or along Continental lines as a California Style Chuck, resulting in different retail cuts of meat for the arm and shank of the Chuck. Luckily, the two styles treat the shoulder blade area...
Production Modern Cast iron cookware shouldn’t be pure iron. Other materials, such as carbon and phosphorus, are mixed with the iron to produce proper hardness and durability. Iron with impurities included in it can heat unevenly and crack. Evidence of poor metal mixes include...
Yogurt is made by fermenting the Lactose in Milk with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus bacteria or Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus bacteria that in turn produce the Lactic Acid that gives Yogurt its sourness and distinctive texture. Other lactobacilli and bifido...
Animal milk is thought to have first been used for human consumption around 5,000 BC when it is presumed animals (like cattle) were domesticated, for their meat. Over time, our ancestors did the math. Dairy products, and manure (and eventually labor) provided by the animals were a...
Hybrid Tomato plants are very common because commercial growers and home gardeners like that they tend to be hardier, better producing plants. Varieties Hybrid Tomatoes include: Beefmaster Tomato Better Boy Tomato Black Zebra Tomato Burpee Big Girl Tomato Bush...
Italians classify their Rice grains by their sizes and their widths. Superfino is the term used for the widest size. Semifino is the term used for medium width and Fino is the narrowest Grain. Nutritional Value USDA
When most of us think of Italian cuisine, we think of Tomato Sauce & Pasta or perhaps a tomato based pizza sauce but Tomatoes are a new world vegetable that did not reach Italian shores until the 1500’s. Even then it was not an immediate culinary smash. Tomatoes were...
In Italy, tomato sauces can range from the most simple crushed tomatoes and garlic Sautéed in oil to more complicated tomato reductions with additions of meat, vegetables and spices. In the United States, true to our melting pot roots, we have adopted many of the fine...
The word "Kosher" refers to a Jewish law meaning proper or correct. Kosher foods are those processed in accordance with the Jewish law. For a food product to be kosher, it must be processed under Kosher Certification. There are many Kosher Certifying...
Kosher certification involves examining ingredients, the method of preparation and inspecting the facility on a regular, periodic basis. These inspections ensure all ingredients are kosher and they are prepared following the Jewish law. Kosher meat must also be slaughtered in accordance...
Legumes are a Class of Vegetables.
First of all “Lettuce” is not a specific type of Green or type of Vegetable. Instead, Lettuce is more of a “catch-all” name, like Grains, which is technically applicable to a number of related plants with edible leaves in the genus Lactuca. In practice, any other types...
Production Glass is a non-crystalline material manufactured by melting a combination of raw materials including sand, soda ash, limestone, feldspar and borax. The glass used in cookware is normally melted in a large refractory furnace or tank at temperatures exceeding 2000° F. A small...
Production Thermoset plastics are compression molded by using a predetermined weight of material which is either formed or compressed into a slug or pill and is placed in the mold when the mold is in an open condition. The mold then closes, and heat and pressure are applied to this plug which...
Production The prehistoric people of Asia preserved meat and fish by packing them in Salt. The liquid byproducts that leeched from meat preserved in this way were commonly used as liquid seasonings for other foods. In the sixth century, as Buddhism became more widely practiced, new...
Production Stainless steel bakeware is usually fabricated from sheets of solid stainless steel. Top-of-range stainless steel cookware and utensils are generally made by combining stainless steel with other metals, usually aluminum, copper or carbon steel. The other metals improve the...
There are Many Varieties of these Medium Sized Tomatoes.
The Meat Inspection process begins with veterinarians looking for exterior defects and diseases that can be harmful or fatal to man or animals. The animal must be 100% healthy or the meat will be rejected. Sanitation and wholesomeness are overseen by the Food Safety & Inspection Service...
In 1999, the 10 largest beef-packing firms accounted for more than 90 percent of all Steer and Heifer slaughter in the U.S. The top four processors of hogs processed more than half of the country's pork. In 2011, according to the Western Organization of Resources Councils three...
Production Both slaughtering and the animal inspection process are controlled by the Federal Government through the USDA. As of this writing, there are 5 major companies that process most of the meat in the United States: Swift a subsidiary of JBS, The world’s largest meat...
In aggregate, approximately 28 million land and sea animals are consumed every year in the U.S. The meat and poultry industry is the largest segment of U.S. agriculture. Total meat and poultry production in 2010 reached more than 92.1 billion pounds, up 1.2 billion pounds from...
Microwave Radiation: Sound frequencies penetrate the surface of an object and cause the water molecules to become agitated, thereby giving off heat that spreads through Conduction to the rest of the food. Nutritional Value USDA
Most Planetary Mixers come with various Mixer Attachments. Varieties Common Attachments include: Dough Hook – A spiral-shaped attachment used for mixing and kneading yeast-based dough. Paddle or Flat Beater – A paddle-shaped attachment that is used for mixing...
In the kitchen, the definition of a “Nut” (and we don’t mean the chefs or line cooks) is much looser than the biological definition. Production About 72% of U.S. Tree Nut production is exported. Varieties In biology, a Nut is sort of a combination fruit/seed...
In cooking, an Oil is Fats (generally derived from plants) that are liquid at room temperature. Varieties Some of the most edible used oils used in the kitchen include: Olive Oil, Palm Oil, Soybean Oil, Canola Oil, Corn Oil, Sunflower Oil, Safflower Oil, Peanut Oil, Grape Seed Oil,...
There are Many Types of Oils Used in the Kitchen. Select the Appropriate one for your Application.
Production In 1863, French chemist and biologist Louis Pasteur invented pasteurization, a method of killing harmful bacteria in beverage and food products with time & temperature. To pasteurize milk, heat it to 145°F (62°C) and hold it for thirty minutes, then chill rapidly to...
Any type of Pepper is a member of the Nightshade family (Solanaceae), which also includes Eggplant, Potatoes, Tomatoes, and tobacco. All Peppers are part of the genus Capsicum and are commonly called “Capsicums,” “Chilies” (also spelled “Chiles,”...
The Peppercorn, is one of the most valuable commodities in the world! To date, Peppercorns account for one quarter of the Spice Trade. Peppercorn originated in the Indian tropical forest regions. Today, Indonesia, Malaysia and Brazil are major...
A protected geographical indication is like a brand name for the place of origin of a product. The most famous example is Champagne, which must come from the Champagne region of France, or be called sparkling wine. The protected geographical indication is designed to protect and certify...
Rice Pilaf is a versatile dish that has expanded around the world following the distribution of Rice through trade and conquest. The History of Rice Pilaf is interesting as is the application of native culinary and cultural talent which adapted the adopted dish to the local tastes, preferences...
As fruit ripens, it reaches its full size, changes color and its flesh becomes tender. Its acid content increases but so do its sugars, making it, illogically, taste sweeter even with a higher acid content. The fruit is considered ripe when it reaches a perfect balance of acid &...
Secondary Alcoholic Fermentation refers to the second stage in the typically two stages of fermenting vinegar. In the first stage, Primary Fermentation, sugar is converted to alcohol by yeasts. In turn the alcohol is converted in the second stage by acetobaters into acetic acid. In...
Simple Syrup, also known as “Bar Syrup” is made by dissolving sugar in water and then cooling the solution. Generally, the ratio of sugar to water when making a Simple Syrup can range from 1:1 to 2:1. Varieties Sweeteners used to make the Simple Syrup can include: White...
When discussing Sheep, Cattle or Swine, the skeletal anatomy, that we follow to derive meat cuts, is similar with sides, quarters and primal cuts around the upper half shoulder, ribs, loin & rump sections and the lower half chest, foreleg, plate/flank & rear leg. The most tender...
What are density and specific gravity? Consider getting a jar and adding a handful of gravel, ½ cup of cooking oil, and topping it off with tap water. Imagine putting on the lid and shaking vigorously and then letting it sit for a minute. What do you think would happen? If you...
In cuinary arts, Sugar is the generic name for a class of sweet food stuffs and ingredients that include actual Sugars such as Sucrose, Dextrose, Galactose, Maltose, Fructose, Glucose, and Lactose, but also other sweeteners such as Honey, Molasses, Agave Syrup and Artificial...
Humans taste with their tongues and soft palate (roof of the mouth). Both have taste buds (also called papillae), and our epiglottis, along with our sense of smell. For the taste component alone, when food enters your mouth, it comes into immediate contact with your tongue which is divided...
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A T-bone steak, a plate of pasta, a slice of pizza; while these may all be food favorites of many, would they be quite so pleasing if they weren’t served warm and steaming? Wouldn’t you be a bit unhappy if they came out hard and tough? Dessert items such as pudding and...
Water Boils at Different Temperatures Depending on Air Pressure and Altitude.
There are Many Different Varieties of these Larger Types of Tomatoes.
The words Roasting and Baking are artifacts of history, developed as culinary vocabulary when man learned the different uses of a cooking fire. Imagine early chefs cooking over an open fire. They originally had two primary and distinctive methods to use to cook the food. They could...
In 1930 Ruth Graves Wakefield, a dietician and food lecturer, was running a tourist lodge called the Toll House Inn in Massachusetts with her husband where her duties included cooking meals for the inn’s guests. Intending to make chocolate drop cookies, she discovered she had no...
In the history of food, whoever controlled access to flavorings such as spices had a powerful business advantage. With little Seasoning available, a European diet in the Middle Ages was bland and uninteresting. Europeans were nearly mad for spices and they would do (and pay) anything...
Though its origins are a bit unclear, Corn is a true American native. Corn most likely developed from a large grass called teosinte (Zea Mexicana) which still grows wild in Central America. Corn was the result of radical evolutionary changes from its parent plant and is quite different...
Before the Ancient Greeks, most educated people agreed that there were three tastes: sweet, of course, sour and salty. But a Greek philosopher, Democritus, thought about it long and hard several thousand years ago, and added the taste we call bitter today, making it four. His conception...
Granola was invented in 1863, long before the Hippies of the 60’s rediscovered it. But the history of granola started even earlier with Hardtack (or hard tack) the Great-Grandfather, if you will, of Granola. Before modern preservation methods, dried baked flour products were one of the...
Olives have been eaten and used by man for thousands and thousands of years. Since prehistoric times, people have been grinding and draining Olives to collect Olive Oil for use as fuel, in cooking and in beauty treatments. Depending on the type, Olives are composed of between 15 and 30%...
Raw fresh fish was caught and filleted. It was then salted and wrapped in Rice and kept in storage for months, even up to a year. The Rice would become sour and ferment and help preserve the fish by breaking down the Protein into its Amino Acid building blocks. Later, when needed,...
The Macadamia, which looks similar to a Filbert Nut, originated in the rainforests of Queensland and New South Wales in eastern Australia. The aborigines enjoyed the Macadamia Nut long before the arrival of Westerners who only “discovered” Macadamias in 1828 when Alan...
Yogurt (or at least fermented Milk) may pre-date man. There is evidence in the genome of L. delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus that this Yogurt making bacteria may have originated as a plant dweller, that is, a bacteria living on the surface of plant leaves. Natural animal milk may have come...
This Smart Kitchen Resource Page is dedicated to just listing out some of the Sweet Peppers that are commonly found at retail. In the list of Sweet Peppers, you will find Peppers with 0 heat and those with mild heat. The hot peppers are listed in the List of Hot Peppers. If you want to...
Meat was a rare treat for the average Medieval diner and often only available to the nobility. As such, very little Chopping or Mincing of that delicacy was done. Sausage Making, a major method of preserving and extending meat’s shelf life at the time, did not even require grinding...
Genetic studies show that the Tomatoes’ forbearer was a herbaceous green plant with small green fruit that was a native of early Peru. One of its cultivars, a Tomato plant with a small, yellow fruit (think of a yellow Cherry Tomato), was transported, in pre-history, to Mexico,...
A Quick Summary of Some of the More Familiar of the 67 Types of Butter.
Varieties Some types of Creams are: Cream: Cream is the fat of whole milk that slowly rises to the top of the standing fresh milk. Historically, it was skimmed off to be used for richer purposes, like butter. The longer it stands, the richer it gets. Cream comes in a number of...
Varieties Below, Smart Kitchen has listed different types of Dairy Milk with some information for each type. Follow each link, if you would like to learn more for each milk type. Whole Milk: Whole Milk is the milk as it came from the cow and contains about 3.5% butter fat....
Varieties Barley: Grown for malting and feeding livestock on land too cold or poor for wheat. Buckwheat: A Pseudo-Cereal used in Eurasia. Major Western uses include Pancakes & Groats from the minimally processed grain itself. Corn: see Maize below. Fonio: Several...
Varieties Milk comes from a number of animal sources. Below are the types of milk, provided by different animals. Cow Milk- Milk produced by a female cow. It has approximately 3.5% milk fat, 8.5% milk solids and is 88% water and used by humans as a beverage, for making dairy products...
For ease of use and clarity, the North American Meat Processors Association (NAMP) codified all of the cuts to be found on a Poultry (Chicken, Turkey, Duck, Geese, etc.) into a simple list. The NAMP list of cuts, applies equally to any of the domesticated poultry types. Learn more about...
There are a Multitude of Small Tomato Varieties.
A Smaller Building Block of the Butcher's Trade.
Culinary Uses Don't just assume that any beef with the word "roast" in its name will make a good roast beef. Some of those “roasts” are intended for pot roast and are not good for a Dry Heat Method like Roasting. Many of them need longer slower cooking with a...
In the past it was no simple feat to determine where your meat was born. But since October 2008 (fully implemented in March 2009) mandatory Country of Origin Labeling (COOL) on ground meat or muscle cuts of meat (beef, lamb, veal, pork & chicken) at retail grocers has been required....