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Simmering means to cook products in liquid/water that is just below the boiling point. The Actual Temperature for Simmering is between 185° F - 205° F (85° C - 96° C). In this process, virtually some agitation is caused by heat. Nutritional Value USDA
Production The production of beef is carried about by four primary types of operations: Cow & Calf Operations: What we typically think of as a ranch. Cow & Calf Operations are where breeding is developed. There are eight major Beef Cattle Breeds, and cows give 14-16...
Varieties Adaptaur (from Australia): A Bos taurus breed, bred for the tropics from Herefords and Shorthorns. Afrikaner Cattle (from South Africa): Afrikaners are a South African breed descended from Sanga type of cattle herded by the Khoikhoi (Hottentots) before the Dutch established the...
It is believed that all modern domestic cattle evolved from a single ancestor, the Aurochs, which is now extinct. Modern beef cattle can be classified as one of two biological types, Bos indicus or Bos taurus. Our modern method of raising cattle on corn is relatively new. In the past it was...
In the Middle East, Clarified Butter (produced in their style) is called “Samna,” and in India & South Asia (produced in their style) it is called “Ghee.” The biggest difference between Classic Clarified butter and Samna or Ghee is that in Ghee, the butter is...
There are Many Differences Between White Chicken Meat and Dark Chicken Meat.
Varieties In addition to Beurre D’Isigny and Beurre Poitou-Charentes there are several other European Butters with Protected Geographical Indications: Beurre Rose, from Luxembourg ...
In 1869, Emperor Louis Napoleon III of France seeking to feed his armed forces (and the lower classes) offered a prize for a satisfactory butter substitute. French Chemist Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès answered the call and invented margarine while experimenting with processed...
Like wine making, vinegar making was probably discovered by accident. A jug of fresh fruit juice, such as grape juice might have been left uncovered and unattended. Wild airborne yeasts clinging to the grape skins or settling out of the air spontaneously began a Primary Alcoholic...
Food Labels are on almost all processed foods and provide a wealth of information about the contents of the packages. The information can help the consumer select foods low in Calories, Fat, Cholesterol, and Sodium, and high in Dietary Fiber, Nutrients, and Complex Carbohydrates. The...
Free Range is becoming a very common! Learn what it means to ensure You don't get tricked by the food industry.
Butter from Normandy has a distinctive flavor that is reputed to derive from the unique nature of the cream from which it is made, and from the bacteria indigenous to the dairies there. Just as certain lactobacillus injected into milk yields yogurt, mildly fermented cream visited by wild...
Fine Herbes or "Fin Herbs" as it is pronounced in French are Some of the Most Traditional and Delicate Seasonings.
For hundreds of years, the name Fondue or Fonduë, meant a similar type of dish as our modern Fondue, but one which was, if possible to believe, richer because it included Eggs as well as Cheese and wine. In 1735, Vincent La Chappelle wrote in French of Fonduë de Fromage aux...
The history of Pilaf pre-dates written history. To understand the major leaps forward in Pilaf technology and distribution, we must refer to the Etymology (the word history), human history and the anthropological / archeological record. Scientists estimate that humans were actually...
According to Lindley's Treasury of Botany, the genus name Rheum, the technical name for Rhubarb, is said to be Latin in origin and derived from “Rha,” the archaic name of the Volga River in Russia. The ancient Romans imported Rhubarb from trading centers on the Volga...
Before the rise of man, there were two naturally occurring forbearers of Rice with a very similar genome. One, Oryza barthii was native to Africa. The other wild grass “Nivara” was native to Asia. Scientists postulate that their similarities and parallel evolutionary paths...
Modern French sauces begin with Francois La Varenne in the 17th Century. The French concept of "Mother Sauces," which we will delve into in Exercise 2, is an 18th century invention of Antonin Carême, the founder of French “Grande Cuisine.” Carême...
The Chuck Primal Cut can be broken down along English lines as a Square-Cut Chuck or along Continental lines as a California Style Chuck, resulting in different retail cuts of meat for the arm and shank of the Chuck. Luckily, the two styles treat the shoulder blade area...
Production Modern Cast iron cookware shouldn’t be pure iron. Other materials, such as carbon and phosphorus, are mixed with the iron to produce proper hardness and durability. Iron with impurities included in it can heat unevenly and crack. Evidence of poor metal mixes include...
Yogurt is made by fermenting the Lactose in Milk with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus bacteria or Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus bacteria that in turn produce the Lactic Acid that gives Yogurt its sourness and distinctive texture. Other lactobacilli and bifido...
Animal milk is thought to have first been used for human consumption around 5,000 BC when it is presumed animals (like cattle) were domesticated, for their meat. Over time, our ancestors did the math. Dairy products, and manure (and eventually labor) provided by the animals were a...
Hybrid Tomato plants are very common because commercial growers and home gardeners like that they tend to be hardier, better producing plants. Varieties Hybrid Tomatoes include: Beefmaster Tomato Better Boy Tomato Black Zebra Tomato Burpee Big Girl Tomato Bush...
Italians classify their Rice grains by their sizes and their widths. Superfino is the term used for the widest size. Semifino is the term used for medium width and Fino is the narrowest Grain. Nutritional Value USDA
When most of us think of Italian cuisine, we think of Tomato Sauce & Pasta or perhaps a tomato based pizza sauce but Tomatoes are a new world vegetable that did not reach Italian shores until the 1500’s. Even then it was not an immediate culinary smash. Tomatoes were...
In Italy, tomato sauces can range from the most simple crushed tomatoes and garlic Sautéed in oil to more complicated tomato reductions with additions of meat, vegetables and spices. In the United States, true to our melting pot roots, we have adopted many of the fine...
The word "Kosher" refers to a Jewish law meaning proper or correct. Kosher foods are those processed in accordance with the Jewish law. For a food product to be kosher, it must be processed under Kosher Certification. There are many Kosher Certifying...
Kosher certification involves examining ingredients, the method of preparation and inspecting the facility on a regular, periodic basis. These inspections ensure all ingredients are kosher and they are prepared following the Jewish law. Kosher meat must also be slaughtered in accordance...
Legumes are a Class of Vegetables.
First of all “Lettuce” is not a specific type of Green or type of Vegetable. Instead, Lettuce is more of a “catch-all” name, like Grains, which is technically applicable to a number of related plants with edible leaves in the genus Lactuca. In practice, any other types...
Production Glass is a non-crystalline material manufactured by melting a combination of raw materials including sand, soda ash, limestone, feldspar and borax. The glass used in cookware is normally melted in a large refractory furnace or tank at temperatures exceeding 2000° F. A small...
Production Thermoset plastics are compression molded by using a predetermined weight of material which is either formed or compressed into a slug or pill and is placed in the mold when the mold is in an open condition. The mold then closes, and heat and pressure are applied to this plug which...
Production The prehistoric people of Asia preserved meat and fish by packing them in Salt. The liquid byproducts that leeched from meat preserved in this way were commonly used as liquid seasonings for other foods. In the sixth century, as Buddhism became more widely practiced, new...
Production Stainless steel bakeware is usually fabricated from sheets of solid stainless steel. Top-of-range stainless steel cookware and utensils are generally made by combining stainless steel with other metals, usually aluminum, copper or carbon steel. The other metals improve the...
There are Many Varieties of these Medium Sized Tomatoes.
The Meat Inspection process begins with veterinarians looking for exterior defects and diseases that can be harmful or fatal to man or animals. The animal must be 100% healthy or the meat will be rejected. Sanitation and wholesomeness are overseen by the Food Safety & Inspection Service...
In 1999, the 10 largest beef-packing firms accounted for more than 90 percent of all Steer and Heifer slaughter in the U.S. The top four processors of hogs processed more than half of the country's pork. In 2011, according to the Western Organization of Resources Councils three...
Production Both slaughtering and the animal inspection process are controlled by the Federal Government through the USDA. As of this writing, there are 5 major companies that process most of the meat in the United States: Swift a subsidiary of JBS, The world’s largest meat...
In aggregate, approximately 28 million land and sea animals are consumed every year in the U.S. The meat and poultry industry is the largest segment of U.S. agriculture. Total meat and poultry production in 2010 reached more than 92.1 billion pounds, up 1.2 billion pounds from...
Microwave Radiation: Sound frequencies penetrate the surface of an object and cause the water molecules to become agitated, thereby giving off heat that spreads through Conduction to the rest of the food. Nutritional Value USDA
Most Planetary Mixers come with various Mixer Attachments. Varieties Common Attachments include: Dough Hook – A spiral-shaped attachment used for mixing and kneading yeast-based dough. Paddle or Flat Beater – A paddle-shaped attachment that is used for mixing...
In the kitchen, the definition of a “Nut” (and we don’t mean the chefs or line cooks) is much looser than the biological definition. Production About 72% of U.S. Tree Nut production is exported. Varieties In biology, a Nut is sort of a combination fruit/seed...
In cooking, an Oil is Fats (generally derived from plants) that are liquid at room temperature. Varieties Some of the most edible used oils used in the kitchen include: Olive Oil, Palm Oil, Soybean Oil, Canola Oil, Corn Oil, Sunflower Oil, Safflower Oil, Peanut Oil, Grape Seed Oil,...
There are Many Types of Oils Used in the Kitchen. Select the Appropriate one for your Application.
Production In 1863, French chemist and biologist Louis Pasteur invented pasteurization, a method of killing harmful bacteria in beverage and food products with time & temperature. To pasteurize milk, heat it to 145°F (62°C) and hold it for thirty minutes, then chill rapidly to...
Any type of Pepper is a member of the Nightshade family (Solanaceae), which also includes Eggplant, Potatoes, Tomatoes, and tobacco. All Peppers are part of the genus Capsicum and are commonly called “Capsicums,” “Chilies” (also spelled “Chiles,”...
The Peppercorn, is one of the most valuable commodities in the world! To date, Peppercorns account for one quarter of the Spice Trade. Peppercorn originated in the Indian tropical forest regions. Today, Indonesia, Malaysia and Brazil are major...
A protected geographical indication is like a brand name for the place of origin of a product. The most famous example is Champagne, which must come from the Champagne region of France, or be called sparkling wine. The protected geographical indication is designed to protect and certify...
Rice Pilaf is a versatile dish that has expanded around the world following the distribution of Rice through trade and conquest. The History of Rice Pilaf is interesting as is the application of native culinary and cultural talent which adapted the adopted dish to the local tastes, preferences...
As fruit ripens, it reaches its full size, changes color and its flesh becomes tender. Its acid content increases but so do its sugars, making it, illogically, taste sweeter even with a higher acid content. The fruit is considered ripe when it reaches a perfect balance of acid &...
Secondary Alcoholic Fermentation refers to the second stage in the typically two stages of fermenting vinegar. In the first stage, Primary Fermentation, sugar is converted to alcohol by yeasts. In turn the alcohol is converted in the second stage by acetobaters into acetic acid. In...
Varieties Below, Smart Kitchen has listed different types of Dairy Milk with some information for each type. Follow each link, if you would like to learn more for each milk type. Whole Milk: Whole Milk is the milk as it came from the cow and contains about 3.5% butter fat....