Sugar
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In cuinary arts, Sugar is the generic name for a class of sweet food stuffs and ingredients that include actual Sugars such as Sucrose, Dextrose, Galactose, Maltose, Fructose, Glucose, and Lactose, but also other sweeteners such as Honey, Molasses, Agave Syrup and Artificial Sweeteners.

Sugarcane cultivation started in Papua New Guinea around 8,000 B.C. and reached India about 2000 years later. Alexander the Great reached India in 326 B.C. which introduced the West to sugar. By A.D. 750 the Arabian Empires dominated the sugar trade between the East and Europe, where sugar was originally used medicinally. It was considered a "cure-all" that was good for ailments of the blood, stomach, lungs, even melancholy. Today, modern medicine holds almost the opposite view. 

The average consumption of empty sugar calories is about 53 pounds (24 kg) per person. The rate of consumption in Western industrialized countries is even higher at 73 pounds a person (33.1 kg).

Cultivation

Most plant tissues contain sugars but not in high enough concentrations to be economically efficient for extraction. Most commercial Sugar comes from Sugar Beets or Sugar Cane (a giant grass). Sugar was first widely available in the 1700’s when West Indies sugar plantations supplied the world’s markets with an abundance of sweets. In the 1800’s Sugar Beets (a root crop) supplanted Sugar Cane as the major sugar crop.

Production

The world produces about 168 million tons of Sugar a year.

Varieties

We also process and/or purchase Sugar as: Raw Sugar, Lump Sugar, Loaf Sugar, Brown Sugar, Powdered Sugar, Caster Sugar, Liquid Sugar, Coarse Sugar, Ultra Fine Sugar, Nib Sugar, Demerara Sugar, Icing Sugar, Sanding Sugar, and White Sugar/Granulated Sugar.

More specific information on each type of Sugar can be found by following the links on this page.

Culinary Uses

Per-capita Sugar Consumption worldwide has climbed nearly 5 times over the past 100 years to 53 pounds a year, as American-style diets take hold overseas.

Portion Size

Allow 1-2 t of Sugar per recipe.

Pairings

Basil, Cloves, Almonds, Brazil Nuts, Cashews, Macadamia Nuts, Pecans, Peanuts, Walnuts, Beets, Carrots, Corn, Daikon, Garlic, Ginger, Jicama, Onions, Parsnips, PeppersPotatoes, Pumpkin, Squash, Tomatoes, Apricots, Bananas, Berries, Cherries, Currants, Dates, Figs, Grapes, Lemons, Limes, Mangoes, Melons, Oranges, Nectarines, Papaya, Peaches, Pears, Persimmons, Pineapple, Plums, Barley, WheatButter, Cream, Milk, Chicken, Duck, Crab, Lobster, Pork, Turkey, Beans, Lentils, Rice, Spirits, Wines, Vinegars, Marinades, Sauces

Substitutes

Agave Syrup, Honey, Molasses, Maple Syrup

Nutritional Value USDA
SUGARS,GRANULATED
Amount Per 100g
Calories 387
%Daily Value*
 
0%
Total Fat 0g
0%
Saturated Fat 0g
Polyunsaturated Fat 0g
Monounsaturated Fat 0g
0%
Cholesterol 0mg
0%
Sodium 1mg
0%
Potassium 2mg
33%
Total Carbohydrate 99g
0%
Dietary Fiber 0g
Sugars 99g
Protein 0g
* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your Daily Values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs.
Nutrition

Sugars are Carbohydrates and are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Simple sugars are called Monosaccharides (Glucose, Fructose,Galactose). More complex Sugars are called Disaccharides (Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose). The common Table Sugar (Granulated Sugar) is Sucrose and a disaccharide.

Specifically, real Sugar is a Carbohydrate composed of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.  There are Simple Sugars (Monosaccharides) and Complex Sugars (Disaccarides). Simple Sugars (Fructose, Galactose, & Glucose) are made up of one Sugar molecule. Complex Sugars (Maltose, Lactose, Sucrose) are more complex because they are made of two Sugar molecules.

Sugar, especially refined Sugar, has been linked to obesity, but not proven to cause it. Sugar is also suspected of being implicated in diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, macular degeneration and tooth decay. We say “linked to” and “suspected of” because although many scientific studies have been undertaken to prove the causality, the results remain largely unproven, primarily due to the difficulty of finding a control group population that does not use sugar.

Sugar consumption has been linked to some diseases, most notably diabetes. In fact, as Sugar becomes more widely available around the world, developing nations are starting to see a rise in diabetes. Forty percent of the world's diabetes cases are in India and China.

Gluten Free

Yes

Low Fat

Varies

Low Calorie

Varies