Bos taurus
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Bos taurus breeds derive from the ancient Celtic Shorthorn and have a closer resemblance to the Aurochs. Bos taurus descendants can be classified into two subcategories, British Breeds and Continental Breeds.

Continental breeds, also called Exotics, originated in Europe. They are known for weight gain and cutability. Exotics are generally larger, lean, and vary in their adaptability to hot weather.

On a purely genetic level, Bos taurus cattle may produce more tender meat. According to the USDA, “cattle of mostly Bos indicus breed ancestry are more likely than their Bos taurus counterparts to produce tough beef.” USDA physiologist Mohammad Koohmaraie cautions against using only the ancestry as a gauge of tenderness because "Beef tenderness or toughness, is controlled about 70% by environment and 30% by heredity and may involve the expression of many genes." Source USDA Towards More Tender Beef.

Varieties

The following Continental breeds are commonly found in the United States:

Charolais, Chianina, Gelbvieh, Limousin, Maine-Anjou, Salers, Simmental, Texas Longhorn. (See Beef Cattle Breeds for more information on the individual breeds.)

British breeds, also known as English breeds, come from England. British breeds are smaller than Continental breeds but have an increased fleshing and marbling ability. British breeds are the foundation of the United States beef herd. The following British breeds are commonly found in the United States:

Angus, Hereford (and Polled Hereford), Red Angus, Red Poll, Shorthorn. (See Beef Cattle Breeds for more information on the individual breeds.)

Information on the Bos taurus was researched from work posted by Texas A&M University.