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Varieties According to the Breeds of Livestock Project undertaken by the Department of Animal Science at Oklahoma State University, the following breeds are kept in the U.S. primarily for use as dairy cattle: Ayrshire: The Ayrshire breed originated in the County of Ayr in Scotland, prior...
Production Dairy farmers perform a lot of hard work to care for their cattle and sometimes milk their herds twice a day to procure milk for all the rest of us. The large majority of U.S. dairies are family-owned and are active members of their communities. Farm families tend to take pride in...
Danger Zone: The range at which all food bacteria are capable of rapid growth. Nutritional Value USDA
Dark Meat comes from areas of the animal packed with heavily-used, slow twitch, endurance-type muscles. Dark meat is darker (and more flavorful) than white meat because, the muscles contained in dark meat do more work in the animal. Dark meat is dark because it is made up of slow twitch,...
Darne: A French cut of fish, especially of a large roundfish such as salmon; it is a thick slice cut perpendicular to the backbone; also known as a dalle.
When used in cooking a "Dash" is not a precise measurement but its roughest equivalent is ⅛ teaspoon. If you are a stickler you can purchase some Novelty Measuring Spoons that include a spoon for “Dash.” Sticklers can measure a “Dash” but it...
De-Bone: To remove the bones from a cut of Meat, Fish or Poultry.
De-Budding: Nipping off the flower buds that sprout from the top of many plants, including herbs and tobacco, to force the plant to expend additional energy to grow bigger, better leaves.
Decant: To transfer a wine from its original bottle to another container without disturbing the sediment.
A Deckle is a thick band of fat on a cut of Meat. It can also be used to describe a very fatty cut of meat. In a beef animal there are various Deckles, such as those in the Chuck, the Rib, and the Brisket. Low Fat No Low Calorie No
Decoction: The process and result of extracting flavors or essences by Boiling or Reducing a liquid or food. Also, a style of mashing in which portions of the mash runoff are boiled and returned to the mash during beer brewing.
Decompose: To separate into constituent parts; to disintegrate; to rot.
Decoration: The ornamenting of food for presentation; unlike a Garnish, a decoration does not form an integral part of the dish; a decoration should echo flavors in the food itself.
Deep Clean: A thorough cleaning, including maintenance upgrades.
Deep Frying: a dry-heat cooking method using convection to transfer heat to a food submerged in hot fat; foods to be deep-fried are usually first coated in a batter or breading.
De-Glazing is the name for pouring a liquid (water, stock, an alcohol like wine or beer, etc) into a pan in which foods have been recently cooked. Culinary Uses The pan is heated and scraped to detach the Fond (the caramelized residue of seared foods) and dissolve it into the liquid...
Degrease: To skim the fat from the top of a liquid such as a Stock or Sauce.
Degreased means to remove excess and unwanted fat from a product like Stock or Pan Jus. Culinary Uses A stock can be degreased while simmering by using a spider or kitchen spoon to lift out any visible impurities. Much of the fat, however, is not easily accessible while the stock is...
Dehydrate: To remove or lose water.
Dehydrated Acid: A food additive used as a preservative.
Dehydrated Beets: A food additive used as a red coloring agent in foods such as baked goods, jams and jellies. Gluten Free Yes Low Fat Yes Low Calorie Yes
Dehydrated Garlic (also called Instant Garlic and Garlic Flakes) is exactly what it sounds like, dehydrated cloves of Garlic. As with other dehydrated items, such as Dried Shitake Mushrooms, Dehydrated Garlic should be Rehydrated prior to using it as you would use regular Garlic. An...
Delaney Clause: A provision in The Food and Cosmetic Act, Food Additive Amendment, stating that no substance known to cause cancer in humans or animals at any dosage level shall be added to foods.
Delicatessen Deli: A grocery store that specializes in cooked meats and prepared foods. Traditionally, the foods were of Jewish cuisines, but other ethnic foods, especially Italian, are now included.
Delmonico's opened in 1837 in the financial district in New York City and was the first true restaurant in the U.S., serving à la carte entrees where customers could choose what they wanted instead of receiving whatever was prepared that day. Delmonico’s is the birthplace...
Demand: The market's willingness and ability to purchase an item or service; there should be a balance between such willingness and ability and the price of the item or service.
Demi-Chef: At a food services operation following the Brigade System, it is the person responsible for assisting a chef; also known as an assistant.
Demi-Glace: means "half-glaze" in French and is used to describe a Brown Stock that is Reduced by one half to one third so that is has a Nappé consistency. "Glace" means fully "glazed" in French and is the term for when the Brown Stock has been Reduced...
To Take a Food from a Mold.
Denaturation is a process in which proteins lose their structure (terciary and secondary) by contact with and external force, stress, or compound such as High Heat, a strong base or acid, concentrated salts, or an organic solvent like alcohol. If proteins in a living cell are denatured,...
Denatured Alcohol: Alcohol treated with an additive rendering it unfit for human consumption.
Denatured Protein: A protein that has been treated with heat, acid, base, heavy metal or other agents, causing it to lose some its physical and/or chemical properties.
Dengaku: A Japanese cooking term for foods that are skewered, coated with a sweetened miso paste and grilled.
Density: The compactness of a substance; the degree of opacity of any translucent medium.
Denuded: Stands for cuts of Beef, Veal, Lamb or Pork from which practically all the surface or external fat has been removed; also known as Trimmed.
Desiccated Liver: A nutrient supplement derived from dehydrated liver intended to supply in concentrated form all the nutrients found in liver.
Desirable Weight: The weight range for height and body build associated with the lowest frequency of disease; also known as ideal weight.
Destination Inspection: An inspection the buyer performs on receipt of goods to determine whether the goods conform with purchase specifications.
Most commercial Tomato plants are Determinate, meaning that they have a determined, defined period of flowering and fruit development. They usually have compact bushes or plants that top off at a specific height and bear their full crop of tomatoes all at once. Determinant Tomato types...
Deuce: 1. Restaurant industry slang for a table for two; also known as a two-top. 2. A marketing term for a 2 lb (794-907-g) lobster; also known as a 2 pounder.
Deveining: The process of removing a shrimp's digestive tract.
Dextrin: 1. A polysaccharide formed by the breakdown of starch during digestion or by the action of heat or acid on a starch. 2. A virtually tasteless food additive derived from starchy vegetables and used as a stabilizer, thickener, surface finishing agent and/or processing aid.
Dextrose is short hand for Dextrorotatory Glucose and is a Monosaccaride simple Sugar. Dextrose is also a food additive used as a nutritive sweetener in processed foods such as beverages, particularly fruit juices. Dextrose is also used as a Binding Agent in processed foods such as...
A Diamond Cut: 1/4" diagonal chef cut used for cutting vegetables and fruit. To make a Diamond Cut, make 45 degree angle cuts on all 4 sides. Nutritional Value USDA
Dice: To cut into small cubes. The 3 most commonly found Dice cuts in the kitchen are: Small Dice Medium Dice Large Dice Nutritional Value USDA
Diet: The liquid and solid foods regularly consumed during the course of normal living. 2. A prescribed or planned allowance of certain foods for a particular purpose, such as a low-sodium diet for a person prone to a high blood pressure. 3. A prescribed or planned program of eating and...
Dietary Fiber: Carbohydrates such as cellulose, lignin and pectin that are resistant to digestion but nutritionally significant because they add bulk to the diet by absorbing large amounts of water and facilitate elimination by producing large stools; also known as roughage.
Dietetic: A food-labeling term approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to describe a food that is either a low-calorie or a reduced-calorie food.
Dietitian: A person trained in nutrition, food science and diet planning who applies that knowledge and experience to regulating or advising on the dietary needs of the healthy and sick; a registered dietitian (R.D.) has met certain minimal educational standards and passed the American...
Diffusion: The process by which a substance tends to spread itself evenly within the available space.
Digestion: The process by which food is mechanically and chemically broken down in the alimentary tract and converted into either absorbable substances used to sustain life or water.
Diglycerides: Food additives used as emulsifiers in processed foods such as ice creams and Peanut Butter.
A Dipping Sauce, also called a “Dip” is a Condiment into which various foods are dipped for flavoring and texture. Varieties Common Dipping Sauces include: Aioli, Baba Ghanoush, Bagna Càuda, Barbecue Sauce, Blue Cheese Dressing, Chili Con Queso, Chili Oil,...
Disaccharides are compound Sugars where two simple Sugar molecules make up the Sugar. Sucrose, Maltose and Lactose are all Disaccharides, or compound sugars. The simple sugars, or Monosaccharides, are Galactose, Glucose and Fructose. Complex Sugars use simple sugars as their building...
Dishwasher: Ones who are responsible for ensuring the rapid turnover of clean dishware. Nutritional Value USDA
Diuretic: A substance that increases the secretion of urine and decreases the amount of water present in the body.
Dividend: A slang term used for the remains of a cocktail left in the shaker; the remains is usually liquid that is usually tasteless and watery from melted ice.
Docking: Is referred to pricking small holes in an unbaked dough or crust to allow steam to escape and prevent the dough from rising when baked.
Dollop: An imprecise measure of volume for a soft food such as Whipped Cream or Mashed Potatoes; it can be approximately the mounded amount contained on a teaspoon or tablespoon.
Dolomite: A nutrient (calcium magnesium carbonate) derived from limestone and marble and used as a food additive and/or in nutrient supplements.
Dominant Meat: The Meat, Fish, Shellfish, Poultry or Vegetable that gives a forcemeat its name and essential flavor.
Dopamine: A neurotransmitter and hormone that helps regulate mood and food intake.
Dope: 1. Slang for gravy, probably derived from the Dutch sauce doop. 2. Slang, especially in the American South, for cola drinks because of the slightly stimulating effects of the caffeine.
Dot: To place small pieces of an ingredient, usually Butter, over the surface of a food.
The term Double-Decker refers to any dish of two layers. It is commonly used to describe a Club Sandwich, though that is actually a misnomer. A Double-Decker dish begins with one “deck” (in this case, a slice of toasted bread), followed by a layer of filling. Then another...
Culinary Uses Stock Fortification or making a Double Stock is used to strengthen a stock and make it richer in flavor. The fortified stock can also be used for double Consommés and if one was to keep repeating the process, the stock would be an excellent liquid for use in making an...
The term Dough is an umbrella term that refers to any number of Flours, Cereal, Grains, or Legumes, broken down and mixed with water or other liquids so that it resembles a paste. Culinary Uses Dough is used to make a wide number of popular products including, Bread, Dumplings,...
Dredge: To coat lightly with flour or sugar. Smart Kitchen has more information in our Dredging Resource.
Dressed means “Prepared” for cooking. Item by item it can mean cleaned, dredged, breaded, stuffed, barded, larded, etc. Nutritional Value USDA
Drilling Down means to click links that lead you further "down" into a subject. Drilling down is a way to convey abundant amounts of information for the interested, while allowing the less interested to skim through the same material.
Drizzle: To pour a liquid in a very fine stream over a food or plate. Nutritional Value USDA
Drupes are fruits that have a single pit or “stone” at the center surrounding its seed. The pit or stone is itself surrounded by a larger portion called the pericarp, part of which is the section we usually eat (the mesocarp, which is the fleshy part of the fruit, and sometimes...
In Dry Aging, meat on the bone is stored in a temperature controlled (between 34°-38°F {1.1° C – 3.3° C} ) and humidity controlled (ambient humidity level between 50% & 75%) environment, gradually losing water weight and developing a beef-jerky-textured rind,...
Dry Marsala Wine is chosen most often for making savory sauces such as a Marsala Pan Sauce. Its flavor is more light and tart than Sweet Marsala Wine. Dry Marsala Wine will make your savory sauces taste more refined while a Sweet Marsala Wine will give them a little more of a Caramelized...
Dry Measure: A standard system of measuring units of volume and weight that are not liquid such as sugars, grains or seasonings. A measured dry unit, is about 16% larger when compared to liquid based measurements. Nutritional Value USDA
Dry Plucking refers to the traditional method of plucking birds by hand. These days, most store-bought poultry is Wet Plucked because Dry Plucking is labor intensive, taking up to an hour per bird, and messy. However, the extra effort and/or expense can be worth it, as Dry Plucking yields...
Dry Roasting is to Roast without Added Fat. It is Used Most Often in Commercial Preparation of Ingredients.
Dry Storage is usually right for less perishable foods, like those that do not promote bacteria growth at room temperatures. The foods may be shelf stable at room temperatures because of their packaging, their chemical makeup, added preservatives or because they are just too dry. Dry...
Duchesse: French for "wife of a duke", this word refers to a specific classical potato mixture. Nutritional Value USDA
Duck Classes: Ducks have four classes and they are Peking, Rouen, Aylesbury, and Long Island. Nutritional Value USDA
Dumpling is an umbrella term that refers to cooked balls of Dough. The dough can be made from any number of Flours, Starches or Breads. Dumplings can be Sweet or Savory and can have a filling (Meat, Fish, Vegetables, Fruit, Cheese, etc.) or be unfilled. They can also be made from a...
Duxelles is a French term for a Mince of Mushrooms, or Mushroom stems, that are Sautéed in Butter, and Reduced to a paste. Frequently, Onions, Shallots and herbs, sometimes even Cream is added as well. Culinary Uses Duxelles is a foundation and is used in stuffings (like...