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In cooking, to “Butterfly” means to thin a thicker item by creating two thinner, equally thick, halves joined by a thin “hinge.” In France, the technique is called “à la Papillion” (which means butterfly) and has been recorded in use as early as...
Carry Over Cooking is a term that describes how meat and vegetables continues to cook for 5-10 minutes when removed from any heat source and can increase its internal temperature by 5 to 15° F in that period. As makes sense since the outer perimeter of the meat is closest to the heat...
A good carving outcome begins well before the meat enters the oven. First, select an appropriate Roast. Larger cuts carve more easily, since they are firmer, and retain more juice when cut. Boneless Roasts are usually easier to carve. Once in the oven, cook your roasts to Medium Rare...
Culinary Uses The Grill is best used when cooking product that has a lower water content, is fibrous or is high in oil, ensuring that it stays intact during the cooking process. Larger pieces of meat can be tenderized (by pounding) to begin breaking down their fibers which shortens the overall...
Storage Chemical contamination of food can occur from Improperly Storing Foods (toxic containers, or exposure to toxic substances like pesticides, polish or cleansers), using non-food grade soaps or disinfectants, or improper use of equipment. Some potential chemical hazards with equipment...
Safety and Outcomes are Enhanced with the Right Equipment Used Properly.
Production In this method of Clarifying Butter the butter is Simmered (covered in Introduction to Cooking Methods: Topic 11), until separation of the Butter Fat & Milk Solids occurs. The simmer also evaporates the butter’s native water content. Once the solids turn golden, strain the...
Varieties There are 4 grades assigned to U.S. eggs. U.S. Grade AA eggs have small air cells, whites that are thick and firm; yolks that are high, round, and practically free from defects; and clean, unbroken shells. U.S. Grade A eggs have characteristics of Grade AA eggs except that the...
Some cooking times are easy to guess but some may surprise you, so it’s better to check than find out after the fact that your Turnips have cooked too long. These cooking times are not exact, which is why there is a range listed. But even the range may not be correct in a...
Cross Contamination is the transfer of harmful pathogens to food from other foods, cutting boards, knives and/or utensils. Cross Contamination is an especial risk when handling raw meat, poultry, raw eggs and seafood. Keep these foods and their juices away from already cooked or...
Prevention is better than treatment. Not getting burnt in the first place means there is no need for First Aid for Burns. When working around heat we use the following practices in the Smart Kitchen. The list is not exhaustive and your best defense against burns and fires is your...
According to Temple Grandin, an assistant professor of Animal Science at Colorado State, as relayed by Michael Pollan in his article “Power Steer” the meat packers have tried to create a humane and stress free system of cattle restraints, chutes, ramps and stunning systems ...
The purpose of this page is not to argue a point but to seek clarity for our members. We want to be sure our students are on the same page so that we are talking "Apples to Apples," not "Grilling to Barbecue." Most backyard "barbecues" are outdoor grills...
Coating wet or moist foods with a dry ingredient such as Flour before cooking. Essentially, Dredging means to drag (dredge) the wet food through the dry food so that the dry food adheres evenly to the moist food. Culinary Uses Dredging is usually done prior to Sauteing, Pan Frying,...
Using the Right Oil & The Right Heat for the Dish Can Make All the Difference on a Few Dimensions.
If you are out of the country, especially in areas where tapeworm infections are endemic, you need to take extra precautions when it comes to food. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that people traveling abroad should wash their hands with soap and water...
What we mean by electric heat lag is that electric heating elements retain heat. It is easier to reduce (or increase) heat on a gas burner than on an electric one. With gas, lowering the flame gets your heat source to Medium Heat immediately. Your pan (depending on material and...
The difference between an Essence and a stock, is an Essence is a particular flavor. To make an Essence, proceed with your mirepoix, (covered in Lesson 8: Stock, Sauces & Soups Basics, Topic 2: Stocks, Exercise 2: White Mirepoix) as if making a Stock but use a larger quantity of your one...
Smart Kitchen is not a doctor, medical site or a Trauma Center. Our burn advice is just that advice. If you have ANY WORRIES OR QUESTIONS, use your judgment and contact a doctor or call 911. Varieties For general knowledge, there are three degrees of burn severity: First, Second...
Knowing what foods hold best at different temperatures in the refrigerator, is Food Basics. Learn how to store main food groups, below. Varieties Meat is best kept at temperatures between 32° F to 36° F (0° C to 2° C). Meat should always be held in sealed bottom...
Storage According to Whirlpool Corporation, the average U.S. home has a freezer capacity range of 10 to 22 cubic feet. For a typical family of four, 19-22 cubic feet is considered ideal. Freezer storage is generally for longer term storage of perishable foods. In some cases, freezing is used...
Cultivate the habit of periodically inspecting your knives. If you notice tarnish spots of Red Oxidation (which means “rust”) clean the blade quickly with knife polish or CLR® (a household cleaner we have found to be effective). High Carbon Steel blades will develop a...
In addition to the plating tips covered in Lesson 3: Food Preparation, you may derive some benefit from the following tips: Keep it Simple & Quick: You want attractive dishes , but not overwhelming or silly ones. Unless you have many chefs helping out, you will need to...
As chefs, we want to limit the amount of time our healthy food spends in The Food Danger Zone. At home, with regular quantities of cooked, ready-to-eat food, you can usually cool them to room temperature quickly and unaided just by taking them off the heat and letting them stand....
Driven by profit goals and turning perishable inventory, even the best food retailers have their games. That doesn’t mean you have to play, if you are wise to them. Shopping smarter will stretch your budget and improve your meals. Purchasing To shop smarter, first look for...
You may have heard the computer term “Garbage in, Garbage out” used to describe programming code or databases but the concept applies to cooking technology too. If you start out with inferior or damaged ingredients your meal won’t reach its potential and could be...
Both wet and dry measuring cups have scale markings painted or etched on them but what your eye won’t see is that the scaling marks on the wet measuring cup are about 16% larger than the scaling marks on the dry measuring cups. The wet measuring cups have a larger scale to account...
There are two very good written accounts of how industrial beef is raised in America. One is Betty Fussell’s Raising Steaks: The Life & Times of American Beef the other is an article written by Michael Pollan (of the Ominvore’s Dilemma fame) called “Power Steer”...
Starches are chains of sugar molecules clumped together in granules. When added to sauces and more importantly heated, the long chains of sugar molecules unwind and bond to the water’s hydrogen molecules (in the wine, stock, broth) and thus Gelatinizes the sauce. Nutritional Value...
High Heat Roasting, sometimes called High Heat Oven Roasting, is a quick Roasting technique that uses High Heat in the range of 400˚ F to 499˚ F (204˚ C to 259˚ C). High Heat Roasting is not widely used as a stand-alone cooking technique. If it is used at all, High Heat...
How & When to Fight a Cooking Fire? When in doubt, just get out. When you leave, close the door behind you to help contain the fire. Call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number after you leave. If you do try to fight the fire, be sure others are already warned and getting out and...
The Purpose of Applied Heat is both for Taste and Health.
We want fresher Pork or Chicken and don’t age them, but fresher is not better when it comes to Beef, Lamb and Mutton. Age adds flavor. All modern commercial beef is aged. The traditional technique, which we don’t see much anymore is Dry Aging which is an art practiced by old...
There are a lot of dangerous behaviors that don’t belong in a healthy kitchen. Below we list a lot of them. Work with Food with Dirty Hands Wash up whenever you enter the kitchen to prepare food. Wash up after handling raw meat, raw poultry, raw eggs,...
Cross Contamination can occur by our direct action or through our storage choices. Follow the tips below to cut down on the chance of accidental Cross Contamination. When refrigerating food: place raw meat, poultry and seafood in appropriate containers or sealed plastic bags to...
Freezer Burn, dry, leathery, gray-brown spots of spoilage occurs when dehydration and oxidation damages stored frozen food. Freezer Burn is a food quality issue, impacting the taste and texture of product but not its fitness for consumption. Typically, the whole portion of product is not...
Purchasing The most important when choosing a chef’s knife, is how it feels in your hand. The knife should feel like an extension of your own hand and sit effortlessly in your grip. If a knife you are considering “feels right” here are some tools to further evaluate how it may...
1. Warm the butter in a saucepan over low heat, without boiling it. As the butter melts, the lighter milk solids rise to the top as a foam, and the water and denser milk solids sink to the bottom. The pure butter rests in the middle layer. 2. Once the butter is completely melted,...
You should never let soap touch the cast iron or steel of your grill. The temper (or Cure or Seasoning) is based on grease, and soap removes grease. If you wash your cast iron or steel grill with soap, you will destroy the nonstick. To clean a grill all you need is heat, and a scrub...
Below are the directions for Dry Aging Beef. If you choose to dry age your own beef, research the process thoroughly. Seek out expert advice or an offline mentor and be sure to follow each step carefully. 1. Only the top grades of beef can be dry aged successfully. Use Prime or Choice...
When finishing a sauce, only use salt and/or pepper if your taste buds tell you that the sauce needs it. Finishing sauces with whole butter (both whole and brown) will impart fat, a nice bright glaze and emulsify the sauce. Fernand Point himself attributed the secret of his entire cuisine...
How to Handle Nuisance Smoke Alarms If you are experiencing a number of false alarms, move your smoke alarm farther away from the kitchen according to the manufacturers' instructions and/or install a smoke alarm with a pause button. If a smoke alarm sounds during...
Sugar Sugar is measured by scooping the cup or measuring spoon into the container or bag until it is overflowing, then leveling off with the back of a knife. Brown Sugar Measure brown sugar by packing it moderately firmly into a dry measure with the back of a spoon. If packed to the...
Dry Measuring Spoons Even though you have your little coffee spoon, measuring spoons, which are commercially scaled, are very beneficial. Typically, measuring spoons are available in teaspoon and tablespoon sizes, as well as fractions of each. Most often you will see flat rimmed dry...
Purchasing If you are in the market for a Roasting Pan you will want one with a heavy bottom and low to medium high sides. It should also have two handles. Roasting Pans come in large rectangular or oval shapes with 2- to 4-inch vertical sides, that will keep the pan juices from overflowing...
Purchasing Typically wet measuring cups come in a 2-cup or 4-cup clear form (to eyeball the ingredient level) with a handle and a lip for easy pouring. Most modern measuring cups have both fractional, milliliter and fluid ounce gradations. Wet measuring cups are typically made from pyrex glass...
Before opening your avocado, make sure it is ripe and ready for use. An avocado that is ripe for slicing should give slightly, with gentle pressure (too much pressure can bruise it). If instead the fruit retains small dents from gentle pressure, it is too ripe to slice but can be...
Seasoning, Tempering or Curing are used interchangeably and all mean to fill the pores and voids in the cast iron or steel cooking surface with some sort of grease that subsequently gets cooked into the metal. The practical effect of tempering is a more even cooking heat and a smoother and...
Seasoning steel pans, is simple. Using a paper towel, simply wipe the interior of the pan with any type of flavorless cooking oil and heat the pan while empty. This first step alone will even out the existing oily spots on the pan. When the surface becomes hot (i.e. when the oil begins to...
Purchasing If you are in the market for a Waffle Iron, look for one with an indicator light/alarm that signals when temperature has been reached and an automatic shut-off in case the waffle iron is left on. The electric models we have seen are all nonstick. Prices range from $20 to several 100...
Don’t ignore Product Quality Warning Signs Foods, even in our modern distribution system, can become contaminated during manufacture, distribution, or while being held for retail sale. Signs of product quality issues can be bulging or dented cans or broken and/or unsealed packaging. ...
Culinary Uses A roux, is the most widely used method for thickening a gravy, for roasted or baked chicken and turkey. As the bird is roasting make your roux. After the poultry has finished roasting, add the roux to the drippings in the roasting pan. Cook for a 3-5 minutes. Once cooked, gradually...
You may see chefs on TV using the rounded edge of their Sauté pan to “jump” product over on itself to circulate it in a pan. It looks impressive and makes for good television, but taking the food away from the heat source will extend your cooking times, and if the...
Knowing how to Trim Beef, turns less expensive cuts of beef into more expensive cuts! Assess your own skills. A bit of knife work could yield significant savings. For example, to convert a relatively inexpensive Arm Pot Roast into relatively more valuable Swiss Steaks, consider the cut, then...
A Cornstarch Slurry is a paste-like mixture of cornstarch and water used to thicken sauces, soups and stews. Culinary Uses Cornstarch thickens much more effectively than wheat flour and can easily seize up your fat based sauce (cream, butter, etc.), if you are not careful. With a...
To use vegetable gums to thicken sauces, first add them to the ingredients in the sauce and mix well to dissolve (ideally in a blender), before adding in other liquid ingredients. Often it only takes a small amount, so go slowly. Too much vegetable gum, will over thicken and/or give the...
Wet Plucking is the predominant form of plucking commercial poultry in the United States. Wet Plucking involves dropping the poultry carcass into boiling water to free up and loosen the feathers. The feathers can be more easily removed with a “Plucker” (a mechanical rotating...
If you store your food poorly, near pesticides, under leaking pipes, in direct sunlight, it can become adulterated or ruined. Storage Store hazardous chemicals away from foods to avoid dripping and leaks and cases of mistaken identity. You don’t want to wrongly reach for the...
Place or install the microwave oven at a safe height, within easy reach of all users. The face of the person using the microwave oven should always be higher than the front of the microwave oven door. This is to prevent hot food or liquid from spilling onto a user's face or body...
Manage Kids & Pets Around Heat for the Safety of Everyone Involved.
Beans are Seeds but not all Seeds are Beans.
The basic idea of the Liquid Displacement Method is to avoid the hassle of measuring the irregular shapes and textures of most semi-liquids by adding the hassle of using another liquid to take the reading. For instance, if you want 1 cup of Peanut Butter, spray a 2 cup liquid measuring cup...
With Commercial Refrigeration, there are usually calibrated thermometers inset into the refrigerator doors for quick visual checks of the internal temperature, assuming that the thermometer is working properly. Integral thermometers are rarer in home models and to make sure our foods...
We often think of the classic French Sauces, as “fancy” or “fattening”. However, they're still around, hundreds of years later, because they're extremely tasty! The first step towards incorporating the classics into your personal repetoire and...
Pot Roast is another of those culinary terms that has become mired in confusion. Most of America probably thinks it is a portion cut of Beef that has to be cooked in a liquid in a pot on the stove by a method they believe is called Pot Roasting. The information in the Pot Roasting link...
Refrigerators tend to be coldest at the top where the blower motor injects cold air, and because heat rises, at the bottom where the air intakes aid cooling. The in-between area will be a blended temperature. The more full your refrigerator, without causing crowding and inhibiting air...
Measure internal temperatures with a probe thermometer. Stick the probe into the thickest part of meats, or the center of other dishes, avoiding bones and container sides. The measurement should be taken for 15 seconds to get an accurate reading. Culinary Uses The idea is to get a...
Medium (“Cuit” in French, meaning “cooked”) refers to meats cooked until they have a light/pink center and brown outer portions. Cooking to Medium yields a less juicy, firm flavorful end result. Varieties There is debate between the FDA and the culinary...
Medium Fat Content means that the maximum amount of fat in the Hamburger or Ground Beef is 23% fat. Purchasing Medium Fat Ground Beef or Hamburger will frequently come from the Chuck Primal Cut, but some meat from the hip in the Round Primal Cut may also be used for Medium Fat...
Though it is originally a commercial concept, at Smart Kitchen, we focus on Mise en Place because it is probably the single biggest difference between superstars and the sub-par. Without it, we don’t believe you will be able to easily prepare our increasingly complex meals together...
There’s a lot of confusion around the terminology for Peppers in general and Capsicums in particular. Of course different languages have different names for Capsicums, but things have been further confused by the same name being used for different Peppers. We’ll talk about a...
Purchasing According to the USDA, the label “No Hormones Added” must mean that no growth hormones were used in the creation of the product. The claim is an important consideration when shopping for Beef and Mutton, which are allowed the use of growth hormones if desired. For...
The first and oldest method is pressing, whether by hand, mechanical or hydraulic means. Pressing yields the best quality oil. Only Sesame Seeds (and Olives) yield enough oil to be processed with pressing alone. Beware of unscrupulous manufacturers who try to pass any other kind of...
The best Marinades normally contain four working components: Salt, Oil, Flavoring, and a food Acid. They can easily be remembered with by the acronym SOFA. S.alt enhances flavor and uses osmosis to penetrate foods and bring along the other flavoring agents. O.il helps fat-soluble...
Searing Can be Accomplished After Oven Roasting but it Has Some Drawbacks.
Pan Searing allows all 6 sides (top, bottom, front, back, left and right) to be seared quickly, so that they become golden brown and develop the more complex flavors created by Rendering, Maillard Reaction and Caramelization. Nothing has to be missed. Be careful when Pan Searing about...
Pan Searing Before Oven Roasting is Smart Kitchen's Preferred Method.
Pan Searing is 10 to 20% Quicker than Oven Searing.
Culinary Uses Skillets, Frying Pans, & even a Sauteuse Pan can be used for Pan Frying. Like with Sauté Pans, the pan manufacturers don’t have a common standard name and they market all of the above in similar shapes and sizes. Ultimately what matters is your safety and...
Perfluooctanoic Acid (PFOA) a synthetic chemical used in the manufacture of nonstick coatings has become controversial because in animal studies, exposure to PFOA lead to: • Serious changes in organs including the brain, prostate, liver, thymus, and kidneys. All of which showed...
These Pan Frying tips are based on the Smart Kitchen’s Lesson Introduction to Cooking Methods, Topic 2 Dry Heat – Exercise 15: Pan Frying. The information below is additional tips and not the bulk of the lesson. Culinary Uses The main tips to keep in mind when Pan Frying...
The desired taste in olive oils these days is “Grassy,” which is as useful as “fruity” when describing wine. Appreciating a good olive oil starts with looking at its color and consistency. Professional tasters tend to ignore the color because color can be tampered...
Rare (“Saignant” in French) refers to meats (typically Beef & Lamb) slightly cooked where there is a bright red center that is slightly pink towards the exterior. Cooking meats to Rare leaves them soft, juicy, flavorful and tender. There is debate between the FDA and the...
Other than those foods suggested for dry storage, all perishable foods, especially prepared, ready-to-eat items, should be refrigerated or frozen to protect them from spoilage and contamination by keeping them below The Food Danger Zone’s lowest temperature of 40° F (4°...
Searing Near the End of the Cooking Process is Called a Reverse Sear.
At home, the most common method of cooking Whole Chicken is Roasting, with Grilling a distant second. Roasting is a good choice because a Whole, Skin-On Chicken has enough protective Fat (it can be up to 20% fatty skin) to shield it from the heat and remain juicy. In this exercise we...
Culinary Uses In cooking, Rubs are mixtures of dry seasonings or seasoned pastes rubbed onto the surface of foods before cooking. Dry Rubs usually contain herbs, spices, ground peppers and other dry seasonings. Paste Rubs are dry seasonings held together with small amounts of wet...
Storage Once you have finished cooking your stock, venting it, and de-greasing it, your stock is considered Fully Developed. A fully developed stock should be used or immediately stored for future use. If you plan to freeze your stock, place it in an appropriate freezer-safe container and label...
Picking the Right Technique Makes a Difference in Your Outcomes
Does Searing Lock in Juices? That is the Question.
Skin On Chicken has Superior Flavor and Texture at the price of Additional Calories.
Skin Side Down, is a simple concept, which means that the skin side of a meat, vegetable or fruit is down and in contact with any applicable surface. Culinary Uses At Smart Kitchen we typically use the term “Skin-Side Down” when referring to placing meat items onto a...
It is best to start grilling (and cooking) your product thawed and at a settled, evenly dispersed room temperature. Culinary Uses Right out of the refrigerator, your product should be well under 40°F (4°C). Just letting your product acclimatize and settle at room temperature...
Storage If you plan to use the Hard-Boiled Eggs at a later time, refrigerate peeled hard-boiled eggs with some water so that the eggs don’t dry out. Keep hard-cooked eggs (in the shell or peeled) in the refrigerator under 40 °F (4°C). Use within 1 week after cooking. If you manage...
Tempering, Curing, or Seasoning are used interchangeably and mean to fill the pores and voids in the cast iron or steel cooking surface with some sort of grease that subsequently gets cooked into the metal. The practical effect of tempering is a more even cooking heat, a smoother and more...
Egg Yolks, while desirable for flavor and thickening in sauces and desserts, will curdle if introduced to hot liquids too quickly. A culinary work-around is to temper them, or bring them up to the hot temperature slowly. If working with a sauce over 165°F (74°C) in which you want...
Culinary Uses First, never thaw frozen food items at room temperature. Room temperature is in The Food Danger Zone, where pathogens thrive. Always thaw frozen items in a refrigerator close to 38° F (3° C). This may require planning and thinking ahead. If pressed, some items can be thawed...
Storage Store them in an air tight container for about 3 months in the refrigerator or 6 to 9 months in the freezer. Culinary Uses Raw Pine Nuts and other kinds of raw nuts like Almonds, Pistachios or Peanuts can be oven roasted. Roast raw nuts on a flat cookie sheet (lined with parchment...
It is only a matter of degrees between Broiling and quick High Heat Roasting (about 50 degrees Fahrenheit to be exact). Broiling, which uses High Heat from above, tends to be practiced at or above 500˚ F (260˚ C). High Heat Roasting, which utilizes Convection, is practiced anywhere...
In Texas, there are three broad categories of Chicken Fried Steak: Western, Central and Eastern. Varieties In West Texas, Chicken Fried Steak is made without eggs. The meat is dragged through a seasoned flour-and-breadcrumb mixture before the breading is literally pounded into the...
The leading cause of fires in the kitchen, is unattended cooking. •Stay in the kitchen when you are frying, grilling, or broiling food. If you leave the kitchen for even a short period of time, turn off the stove. •If you are simmering, baking, roasting, or boiling food,...
The Sauteing Tips below are based off our Smart Kitchen Lesson, Introduction to Cooking Methods, Topic 2 Dry Heat, Exercise 14: Dry Heat–Sautéing. Culinary Uses The main tips to keep in mind when sauteing are: Use even-cut, bite-sized pieces. Have them all...
Culinary Uses Tips for making a Roux: 1) A good Roux will be stiff and will not pour well. 2) Roux and the Carrying Liquid should be different temperatures when combining them. a) Cold stock can be added to the hot roux while stirring with a Whisk. b) Or you can add...
Culinary Uses When using Cornstarch to thicken be careful not to over stir or overheat your mixture because rough stirring can cause the starch cells to break which will thin out your mixture. For the same reason of rupturing the cell walls it is not advisable to freeze Cornstarch-thickened...
Culinary Uses Tips for Using Thickening Agents Before you add a thickener to a sauce, skim the fat from the top of the sauce. Once you've added the thickener, the fat will be harder to remove. Flour is a good thickener for gravies, gumbos, and stews, since it gives them a...
Even Flammable Items Won't Burn if They Don't Get Too Hot.
Lighting Charcoal with Fluid Can Be Dangerous, as Can the Heat, the Fumes, and the Carbon Monoxide.
Most examples of Sauce Tomatoes are small plum-shaped, pear-shaped or cylindrical-shaped Tomatoes. They also have a more solid, meaty, low-moisture interior than Slicing-Type Tomatoes. They are in general not very juicy and have few seeds. Most are Hybrid Tomatoes bred for yield, co-incident...
The following general tips are useful for using and caring for Glass or Glass Ceramic cooking equipment, utensils and cookware. Allow your glassware to slowly transition from extremes of hot or cold. Glass bakeware or cookware can be refrigerated and heated in an oven, but not, one...
The following general tips are useful for using and caring for Plastic cooking equipment, utensils and cookware. Before using any plastic ovenware, check the manufacturer’s carton, labels and booklets for special instructions. Before using any plastic cookware, wash the...
The following general tips are useful for using and caring for Stainless Steel cooking equipment, utensils and cookware. Before using a new stainless steel utensil, wash the utensil thoroughly in hot sudsy water to remove any manufacturing oils and polishing...
Always Use a Cutting Board (or similar surface) When Cutting.
Use Grills Safely by: Position the grill well away from siding, deck railings, and out from under eaves and overhanging branches. Place the grill a safe distance from lawn games, play areas, and foot traffic. Keep children and pets away from the grill area by...
The following general tips are useful for using and caring for aluminum cooking equipment, utensils and cookware. New aluminum utensils require washing in warm sudsy water, to remove any residual manufacturing oils. After use, aluminum utensils, like most cookware, should...
The following general tips are useful for Using and Caring for Cast Iron cooking equipment, utensils and cookware. Natural cast iron cookware and utensils should be seasoned before using. Seasoning Cast Iron, differs slightly from Seasoning Carbon Steel. To initially season a cast...
The following general tips are useful for using and caring for Copper cooking equipment, utensils and cookware. Copper can be easily polished with various commercial copper cleaners, to keep it shiny. A mixture of flour, salt, lemon juice and ammonia works (as does one made...
Waxy Potatoes are Used For Boiling, Roasting, Bound Salads, Slicing and Pan Frying.
Well Done (which has no direct French Translation), refers to meats very well cooked where they are gray brown throughout. Cooking meats to a Well Done consistency yields a dry, firm, less flavorful, end product that is a Tougher Chew. Well-Done cooking does not let the flavor of your...
In cooking, a Liaison is used for thickening sauces. Liasions can be added to any sauce type. Before using a liaison, remember that egg yolks curdle from direct contact with hot liquid. To properly make a liaison, whisk together one part egg yolk and three parts Heavy Cream. Temper the...
When applied to Meat, "Frenching" is a term for a form of presentation that can be done to Chops, Ribs, Prime Rib, Roasts, Crown Roasts or any meat with a long bone to clean down and expose. Think of it as a form of presentation or Flair. In practice, the long bones of a...
Marbling refers to the intra-muscular fat in cuts of meat. The marbling is different from the fat external to the meat which can also be called a Lip or Seam, or the “Trim,” that is either retained as Suet or removed during butchering as a waste product. Beef cuts with...
There are two prevalent methods of Pan Roasting used today. The first is “Simple Pan Roasting” or using the conductive transfer of heat from the stovetop to cook product in a Sauté pan in a minimal amount of fat. It is good for thicker and larger cuts of meat and can...
The Pan Sear Flavor: A protein over higher heats creates Fond, the flavorful residue of time in the pan, as its internal moisture evaporates. Some fond adheres to the pan, some adheres to the product. If you pan sear, the fond that remains on the product, follows it into the roasting...
The "Pull Temperature" is the Temperature at Which an Item Should Be Removed From the Cooking Heat.
Seasoned Flour is simply a mixture of Flour and Seasonings. The proportion of each and the types to use in any given application will vary depending on your intent and your preferences. Culinary Uses A simple Seasoned Flour should be made with simple ingredients like Flour, Salt...
The purpose of this page is to discuss the differences between the techniques used for making Paella, Pilaf, Risotto, Jambalaya, and Mexican Rice/Spanish Rice. There is a lot of confusion about these techniques because the flavor in all of them is created, in large part, by the grains...
Turned Down as Low as It Can Go, without Sputtering Out, Your Burner Can Keep Foods Warm.
Oven-Safe means that the item in question can withstand up to 500° F (260°C) in an oven for extended periods without melting or becoming damaged. Frequently, some cookware serves the dual purpose of being used on the stove top and in the oven. The benefits are reaped in taste,...
Course Correction is One of the Secrets to Perfect Gravy.
Season Availability Cultivation Production To make a Brisket tender the internal temperature has to climb fairly high to 180° F to 205° F (82° C to 96° C). The trick is to use indirect heat to get the internal temperature up high enough to break down the...
As different opinions make horse races, so it is with Brisket. Some folks prefer the outcomes of Brisket cooked whole, others prefer the results of Brisket cooked in parts. At Smart Kitchen we have fans of both methods so we can highlight the pros & cons. Ultimately, you will decide...
White Cooked Roux is a lighter-colored version of a cooked roux used in lighter colored, white sauces. To make a White Cooked Roux use the classic proportions of an equal weight of flour and butter. Melt the butter and then add the flour and stir. Stir until the desired color is reached,...
Always use full lengths of wood, the biggest that will fit easily under the grill (up to 15" depending upon your grill’s size.) Burn the wood down to a nice bed of coals, before grilling. Some licks of flame are acceptable if the bed is mostly coals. Those minor flames might...
Smaller grills and smokers can do big things by creating coals from shorter (5”-7”) lengths of wood and/or larger (3”x 3”) chunks of wood on top of the starter charcoal. Use chips or chunks on top of the charcoal heat. To increase the smoke output and longevity of...
Always use full lengths of wood, the biggest that fit easily into the smoker’s fire box. Two to three sticks of wood (up to 15" depending on the size of the fire box) will usually hold the desired heat and maintain the bed of coals for consistent smoke cooking. For best results,...